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3D extension at plate boundaries accommodated by interacting fault systems

3D extension at plate boundaries accommodated by interacting fault systems
3D extension at plate boundaries accommodated by interacting fault systems
Complex patterns of normal faults with multiple orientations and/or highly curved shapes have been traditionally explained by successive tectonic phases of 2-dimensional deformation. Alternatively, multiple fault sets have been proposed to develop simultaneously and in orthorhombic symmetry during a single phase of 3-dimensional deformation. We use analogue models of normal faults to demonstrate that, without the influence of pre-existing structures, 3D extension is preferentially accommodated by the alternate, rather than simultaneous, development of faults with different trends. By means of stress-driven interactions, 3D deformation can be partitioned into coupled systems of normal faults, which display geometries commonly observed in tectonic settings affected by interacting plate boundaries. Under radial extension, deformation is accommodated by major curvilinear grabens coupled with minor perpendicular faults, resulting in the triple junctions of grabens observed in Afar. On the other hand, the alternate development of perpendicular faults accommodates synchronous bi-directional and mutually perpendicular extension, giving the same fault pattern observed in the Barents Sea rift-shear margin.
2045-2322
Collanega, Luca
f7f3b355-4202-4a7f-bf5a-541f21668f93
Corti, Giacomo
dce88b12-5b7a-43b1-8a58-5bd1bc13634c
Breda, Anna
c666f15d-87bb-428a-83aa-867cc7f2eb01
Massironi, Matteo
c1cc3001-07f6-47c9-b950-de0acbc36f92
Keir, Derek
5616f81f-bf1b-4678-a167-3160b5647c65
Collanega, Luca
f7f3b355-4202-4a7f-bf5a-541f21668f93
Corti, Giacomo
dce88b12-5b7a-43b1-8a58-5bd1bc13634c
Breda, Anna
c666f15d-87bb-428a-83aa-867cc7f2eb01
Massironi, Matteo
c1cc3001-07f6-47c9-b950-de0acbc36f92
Keir, Derek
5616f81f-bf1b-4678-a167-3160b5647c65

Collanega, Luca, Corti, Giacomo, Breda, Anna, Massironi, Matteo and Keir, Derek (2020) 3D extension at plate boundaries accommodated by interacting fault systems. Scientific Reports, 10 (1), [8669]. (doi:10.1038/s41598-020-65599-5).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Complex patterns of normal faults with multiple orientations and/or highly curved shapes have been traditionally explained by successive tectonic phases of 2-dimensional deformation. Alternatively, multiple fault sets have been proposed to develop simultaneously and in orthorhombic symmetry during a single phase of 3-dimensional deformation. We use analogue models of normal faults to demonstrate that, without the influence of pre-existing structures, 3D extension is preferentially accommodated by the alternate, rather than simultaneous, development of faults with different trends. By means of stress-driven interactions, 3D deformation can be partitioned into coupled systems of normal faults, which display geometries commonly observed in tectonic settings affected by interacting plate boundaries. Under radial extension, deformation is accommodated by major curvilinear grabens coupled with minor perpendicular faults, resulting in the triple junctions of grabens observed in Afar. On the other hand, the alternate development of perpendicular faults accommodates synchronous bi-directional and mutually perpendicular extension, giving the same fault pattern observed in the Barents Sea rift-shear margin.

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e-pub ahead of print date: 26 May 2020

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 441495
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/441495
ISSN: 2045-2322
PURE UUID: 1acd3fb7-a37f-4bb1-94f5-a800cc6d49aa
ORCID for Derek Keir: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8787-8446

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Date deposited: 16 Jun 2020 16:30
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 02:57

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Contributors

Author: Luca Collanega
Author: Giacomo Corti
Author: Anna Breda
Author: Matteo Massironi
Author: Derek Keir ORCID iD

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