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The role of energy, nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of observational studies

The role of energy, nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of observational studies
The role of energy, nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of observational studies

OBJECTIVE: Diet may influence the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but inconsistent findings have been reported. The purpose of this study was to synthesize evidence from observational studies on the associations between dietary factors and GDM.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Medline and Embase were searched for articles published until January 2015. We included observational studies of reproductive-aged women that reported on associations of maternal dietary intake before or during pregnancy, including energy, nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns, with GDM. All relevant results were extracted from each article. The number of comparable studies that adjusted for confounders was insufficient to perform a meta-analysis.

RESULTS: The systematic review included 34 articles comprising 21 individual studies (10 prospective cohort, 6 cross-sectional, and 5 case-control). A limited number of prospective cohort studies adjusting for confounders indicated associations with a higher risk of GDM for replacing 1-5% of energy from carbohydrates with fat and for high consumption of cholesterol (≥300 mg/day), heme iron (≥1.1 mg/day), red and processed meat (increment of 1 serving/day), and eggs (≥7 per week). A dietary pattern rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and fish and low in red and processed meat, refined grains, and high-fat dairy was found to be beneficial. The current evidence is based on a limited number of studies that are heterogeneous in design, exposure, and outcome measures.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings support current dietary guidelines to limit consumption of foods containing saturated fat and cholesterol, such as processed meat and eggs, as part of an overall balanced diet. Further large prospective studies are warranted.

Cholesterol, Dietary/administration & dosage, Cross-Sectional Studies, Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology, Diet/adverse effects, Dietary Fats/administration & dosage, Energy Intake/physiology, Feeding Behavior, Female, Fruit, Humans, Meat, Pregnancy, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Vegetables
1935-5548
16-23
Schoenaker, Danielle A.J.M.
84b96b87-4070-45a5-9777-5a1e4e45e818
Mishra, Gita D.
02143b82-e536-4915-9b30-3c86cbe1a1fe
Callaway, Leonie K.
8c998763-afd8-4033-a364-84007b926f19
Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.
a92e78f0-b28c-44f3-be86-e744fd004ff4
Schoenaker, Danielle A.J.M.
84b96b87-4070-45a5-9777-5a1e4e45e818
Mishra, Gita D.
02143b82-e536-4915-9b30-3c86cbe1a1fe
Callaway, Leonie K.
8c998763-afd8-4033-a364-84007b926f19
Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.
a92e78f0-b28c-44f3-be86-e744fd004ff4

Schoenaker, Danielle A.J.M., Mishra, Gita D., Callaway, Leonie K. and Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S. (2016) The role of energy, nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of observational studies. Diabetes Care, 39 (1), 16-23. (doi:10.2337/dc15-0540).

Record type: Review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Diet may influence the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but inconsistent findings have been reported. The purpose of this study was to synthesize evidence from observational studies on the associations between dietary factors and GDM.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Medline and Embase were searched for articles published until January 2015. We included observational studies of reproductive-aged women that reported on associations of maternal dietary intake before or during pregnancy, including energy, nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns, with GDM. All relevant results were extracted from each article. The number of comparable studies that adjusted for confounders was insufficient to perform a meta-analysis.

RESULTS: The systematic review included 34 articles comprising 21 individual studies (10 prospective cohort, 6 cross-sectional, and 5 case-control). A limited number of prospective cohort studies adjusting for confounders indicated associations with a higher risk of GDM for replacing 1-5% of energy from carbohydrates with fat and for high consumption of cholesterol (≥300 mg/day), heme iron (≥1.1 mg/day), red and processed meat (increment of 1 serving/day), and eggs (≥7 per week). A dietary pattern rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and fish and low in red and processed meat, refined grains, and high-fat dairy was found to be beneficial. The current evidence is based on a limited number of studies that are heterogeneous in design, exposure, and outcome measures.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings support current dietary guidelines to limit consumption of foods containing saturated fat and cholesterol, such as processed meat and eggs, as part of an overall balanced diet. Further large prospective studies are warranted.

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More information

Published date: January 2016
Keywords: Cholesterol, Dietary/administration & dosage, Cross-Sectional Studies, Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology, Diet/adverse effects, Dietary Fats/administration & dosage, Energy Intake/physiology, Feeding Behavior, Female, Fruit, Humans, Meat, Pregnancy, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Vegetables

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 441990
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/441990
ISSN: 1935-5548
PURE UUID: 2f272a34-6fe5-4af3-b5b8-4e48a6011242
ORCID for Danielle A.J.M. Schoenaker: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-7652-990X

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Date deposited: 03 Jul 2020 16:31
Last modified: 08 Nov 2022 02:56

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Contributors

Author: Gita D. Mishra
Author: Leonie K. Callaway
Author: Sabita S. Soedamah-Muthu

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