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Temperature-induced hatch failure and nauplii malformation in Antarctic krill

Temperature-induced hatch failure and nauplii malformation in Antarctic krill
Temperature-induced hatch failure and nauplii malformation in Antarctic krill
Antarctic krill inhabit areas of the Southern Ocean that can exceed 4.0C, yet they preferentially inhabit regions with temperatures of -1.5 to 1.5C. Successful embryonic development and hatching are key to their life cycle, but despite the rapid climatic warming seen across their main spawning areas, the effects of elevated temperatures on embryogenesis, hatching success, and nauplii malformations are unknown. We incubated 24,483 krill embryos in two independent experiments to investigate the hypothesis that temperatures exceeding 1.5C have a negative impact on hatching success and increase the numbers of malformed nauplii. Field experiments were on krill collected from near the northern, warm limit of their range and embryos incubated soon after capture, while laboratory experiments were on embryos from krill acclimated to laboratory conditions. The hatching success of embryo batches varied enormously, from 0 to 98% (mean 27%). Both field and laboratory experiments showed that hatching success decreased markedly above 3.0C. Our field experiments also showed an approximate doubling of the percentage of malformed nauplii at elevated temperatures, reaching 50% at 5.0C. At 3.0C or below, however, temperature was not the main factor driving the large variation in embryo hatching success. Our observations of highly variable and often low success of hatching to healthy nauplii suggest that indices of reproductive potential of female krill relate poorly to the subsequent production of viable krill larvae and may help to explain spatial discrepancies between the distribution of the spawning stock and larval distribution.
Antarctic krill, Hatching success, NAUPLII, malformations, temperature
2296-7745
Perry, Frances A.
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Kawaguchi, So
802fedb6-f8e4-4bf9-aeb1-c04da22e3d6b
Atkinson, Angus
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Sailley, Sevrine
afda91a1-33cc-4ae5-a9f1-159508aa1963
Tarling, Geraint A
b9eb0007-1e5b-4ced-b733-10310225c8a6
Mayor, Daniel J.
a2a9c29e-ffdc-4858-ad65-3a235824a4c9
Lucas, Cathy H.
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King, R.
ebc7577a-49ce-4d81-b318-97370c9c3df2
Cooper, A
e7c92585-ce7a-46c5-b917-1e820a634c18
Perry, Frances A.
0981084f-aec1-4508-9b8f-4859b67b327a
Kawaguchi, So
802fedb6-f8e4-4bf9-aeb1-c04da22e3d6b
Atkinson, Angus
77d9c544-2749-46fe-b991-df2a11d1d6be
Sailley, Sevrine
afda91a1-33cc-4ae5-a9f1-159508aa1963
Tarling, Geraint A
b9eb0007-1e5b-4ced-b733-10310225c8a6
Mayor, Daniel J.
a2a9c29e-ffdc-4858-ad65-3a235824a4c9
Lucas, Cathy H.
521743e3-b250-4c6b-b084-780af697d6bf
King, R.
ebc7577a-49ce-4d81-b318-97370c9c3df2
Cooper, A
e7c92585-ce7a-46c5-b917-1e820a634c18

Perry, Frances A., Kawaguchi, So, Atkinson, Angus, Sailley, Sevrine, Tarling, Geraint A, Mayor, Daniel J., Lucas, Cathy H., King, R. and Cooper, A (2020) Temperature-induced hatch failure and nauplii malformation in Antarctic krill. Frontiers in Marine Science, 7, [501]. (doi:10.3389/fmars.2020.00501).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Antarctic krill inhabit areas of the Southern Ocean that can exceed 4.0C, yet they preferentially inhabit regions with temperatures of -1.5 to 1.5C. Successful embryonic development and hatching are key to their life cycle, but despite the rapid climatic warming seen across their main spawning areas, the effects of elevated temperatures on embryogenesis, hatching success, and nauplii malformations are unknown. We incubated 24,483 krill embryos in two independent experiments to investigate the hypothesis that temperatures exceeding 1.5C have a negative impact on hatching success and increase the numbers of malformed nauplii. Field experiments were on krill collected from near the northern, warm limit of their range and embryos incubated soon after capture, while laboratory experiments were on embryos from krill acclimated to laboratory conditions. The hatching success of embryo batches varied enormously, from 0 to 98% (mean 27%). Both field and laboratory experiments showed that hatching success decreased markedly above 3.0C. Our field experiments also showed an approximate doubling of the percentage of malformed nauplii at elevated temperatures, reaching 50% at 5.0C. At 3.0C or below, however, temperature was not the main factor driving the large variation in embryo hatching success. Our observations of highly variable and often low success of hatching to healthy nauplii suggest that indices of reproductive potential of female krill relate poorly to the subsequent production of viable krill larvae and may help to explain spatial discrepancies between the distribution of the spawning stock and larval distribution.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 3 June 2020
Published date: 23 June 2020
Keywords: Antarctic krill, Hatching success, NAUPLII, malformations, temperature

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 441992
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/441992
ISSN: 2296-7745
PURE UUID: aef964e6-8b1a-4e20-8ad7-282f0035ee38
ORCID for Frances A. Perry: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-1560-1506
ORCID for Cathy H. Lucas: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-5929-7481

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 03 Jul 2020 16:31
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 02:37

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Contributors

Author: Frances A. Perry ORCID iD
Author: So Kawaguchi
Author: Angus Atkinson
Author: Sevrine Sailley
Author: Geraint A Tarling
Author: Daniel J. Mayor
Author: Cathy H. Lucas ORCID iD
Author: R. King
Author: A Cooper

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