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Foam-in-vein: a review of rheological properties and characterization methods for optimization of sclerosing foams

Foam-in-vein: a review of rheological properties and characterization methods for optimization of sclerosing foams
Foam-in-vein: a review of rheological properties and characterization methods for optimization of sclerosing foams
Varicose veins are chronic venous defects that affect >20% of the population in developed countries. Among potential treatments, sclerotherapy is one of the most commonly used. It involves endovenous injection of a surfactant solution (or foam) in varicose veins, inducing damage to the endothelial layer and subsequent vessel sclerosis. Treatments have proven to be effective in the short-term, however recurrence is reported at rates of up to 64% 5-year post-treatment. Thus, once diagnosed with varicosities there is a high probability of a permanently reduced quality of life. Recently, foam sclerotherapy has become increasingly popular over its liquid counterpart, since foams can treat larger and longer varicosities more effectively, they can be imaged using ultrasound, and require lower amounts of sclerosing agent. In order to minimize recurrence rates however, an investigation of current treatment methods should lead to more effective and long-lasting effects. The literature is populated with studies aimed at characterizing the fundamental physics of aqueous foams; nevertheless, there is a significant need for appropriate product development platforms. Despite successfully capturing the microstructural evolution of aqueous foams, the complexity of current models renders them inadequate for pharmaceutical development. This review article will focus on the physics of foams and the attempts at optimizing them for sclerotherapy. This takes the form of a discussion of the most recent numerical and experimental models, as well as an overview of clinically relevant parameters. This holistic approach could contribute to better foam characterization methods that patients may eventually derive long term benefit from.
aqueous foams, foam sclerotherapy, sclerotherapy, vascular therapies
1552-4981
69-91
Meghdadi, Alireza
2f3003a8-1b77-4763-9657-19a72b04c728
Jones, Stephen A.
4c047c30-afa1-4914-92f3-7a3d8d8d765d
Patel, Venisha A.
c9dcb951-d5f9-46f4-a109-15e5f0dfef40
Lewis, Andrew L.
f604ae82-4d54-4f04-ac8f-e7bc6f1f832c
Millar, Timothy
ec88510c-ad88-49f6-8b2d-4277c84c1958
Carugo, Dario
0a4be6cd-e309-4ed8-a620-20256ce01179
Meghdadi, Alireza
2f3003a8-1b77-4763-9657-19a72b04c728
Jones, Stephen A.
4c047c30-afa1-4914-92f3-7a3d8d8d765d
Patel, Venisha A.
c9dcb951-d5f9-46f4-a109-15e5f0dfef40
Lewis, Andrew L.
f604ae82-4d54-4f04-ac8f-e7bc6f1f832c
Millar, Timothy
ec88510c-ad88-49f6-8b2d-4277c84c1958
Carugo, Dario
0a4be6cd-e309-4ed8-a620-20256ce01179

Meghdadi, Alireza, Jones, Stephen A., Patel, Venisha A., Lewis, Andrew L., Millar, Timothy and Carugo, Dario (2020) Foam-in-vein: a review of rheological properties and characterization methods for optimization of sclerosing foams. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, 109 (1), 69-91. (doi:10.1002/jbm.b.34681).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Varicose veins are chronic venous defects that affect >20% of the population in developed countries. Among potential treatments, sclerotherapy is one of the most commonly used. It involves endovenous injection of a surfactant solution (or foam) in varicose veins, inducing damage to the endothelial layer and subsequent vessel sclerosis. Treatments have proven to be effective in the short-term, however recurrence is reported at rates of up to 64% 5-year post-treatment. Thus, once diagnosed with varicosities there is a high probability of a permanently reduced quality of life. Recently, foam sclerotherapy has become increasingly popular over its liquid counterpart, since foams can treat larger and longer varicosities more effectively, they can be imaged using ultrasound, and require lower amounts of sclerosing agent. In order to minimize recurrence rates however, an investigation of current treatment methods should lead to more effective and long-lasting effects. The literature is populated with studies aimed at characterizing the fundamental physics of aqueous foams; nevertheless, there is a significant need for appropriate product development platforms. Despite successfully capturing the microstructural evolution of aqueous foams, the complexity of current models renders them inadequate for pharmaceutical development. This review article will focus on the physics of foams and the attempts at optimizing them for sclerotherapy. This takes the form of a discussion of the most recent numerical and experimental models, as well as an overview of clinically relevant parameters. This holistic approach could contribute to better foam characterization methods that patients may eventually derive long term benefit from.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 16 June 2020
e-pub ahead of print date: 4 July 2020
Keywords: aqueous foams, foam sclerotherapy, sclerotherapy, vascular therapies

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 442078
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/442078
ISSN: 1552-4981
PURE UUID: b676048f-5640-4ed2-be31-99d6202a43fd
ORCID for Timothy Millar: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4539-2445

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Date deposited: 07 Jul 2020 16:30
Last modified: 22 Nov 2021 02:54

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Contributors

Author: Stephen A. Jones
Author: Venisha A. Patel
Author: Andrew L. Lewis
Author: Timothy Millar ORCID iD
Author: Dario Carugo

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