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Group IV mid-IR photonics

Group IV mid-IR photonics
Group IV mid-IR photonics
Silicon and germanium are transparent up to approximately 8 μm and 15 μm, respectively, thus offering a range of applications in biochemical and environmental sensing, medicine, astronomy and communications [1]. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI), can be used only up to 4 μm due to the high absorption loss of silicon dioxide, and therefore alternative material platforms have to be utilized for longer wavelengths. Also, to fully exploit the transparency range of SOI, 400 or 500 nm thick overlayers need to be used rather than the most popular 220 nm platform [2]. In this paper we report record low loss MIR SOI strip and slot waveguides, as well as Vernier racetrack configurations. If the buried oxide can be removed and replaced with air, such a platform would be transparent up to 8 μm. We report a robust design based on single etch suspended Si waveguides. Ge-on-Si waveguides have already been demonstrated with losses of 2.5-3.0 dB/cm at λ = 5.8 μm by Chang et. al [3] and Shen et. al [4]. We report a record low loss in Ge-on-Si and a demonstration of all optical modulation in such waveguides. Although Si is transparent beyond 1.1 μm, it has been demonstrated that it can be used as a photodetector if mid-bandgap states are created by ion implantation. In this paper we show that detection in Si can be extended to up to 2.5 μm by implantation of SOI waveguides with boron. Finally, we also report theoretical analysis of electroabsorption and electrorefraction in Ge.
Reed, G.T.
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Nedeljković, M.
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Soler Penadés, J.
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Mitchell, C.J.
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Khokhar, A.Z.
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Littlejohns, C.J.
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Stanković, S.
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Troia, Benedetto
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Passaro, V.M.N.
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Shen, L.
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Healy, N.
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Peacock, A.C.
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Ortega-Moñux, A.
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Wangüemert-Pérez, G.
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Molina-Fernández, I.
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Cheben, P.
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Ackert, J.J.
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Knights, A.P.
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Thomson, D.J.
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Gardes, F.Y.
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Mashanovich, G.Z.
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Reed, G.T.
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Nedeljković, M.
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Soler Penadés, J.
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Mitchell, C.J.
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Khokhar, A.Z.
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Littlejohns, C.J.
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Stanković, S.
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Troia, Benedetto
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Passaro, V.M.N.
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Shen, L.
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Healy, N.
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Peacock, A.C.
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Ortega-Moñux, A.
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Wangüemert-Pérez, G.
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Molina-Fernández, I.
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Cheben, P.
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Ackert, J.J.
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Knights, A.P.
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Thomson, D.J.
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Gardes, F.Y.
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Mashanovich, G.Z.
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Reed, G.T., Nedeljković, M., Soler Penadés, J., Mitchell, C.J., Khokhar, A.Z., Littlejohns, C.J., Stanković, S., Troia, Benedetto, Passaro, V.M.N., Shen, L., Healy, N., Peacock, A.C., Ortega-Moñux, A., Wangüemert-Pérez, G., Molina-Fernández, I., Cheben, P., Ackert, J.J., Knights, A.P., Thomson, D.J., Gardes, F.Y. and Mashanovich, G.Z. (2015) Group IV mid-IR photonics. Summer Topicals Meeting Series 2015, Nassau, Bahamas. 12 - 14 Jul 2015. (doi:10.1109/PHOSST.2015.7248190).

Record type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)

Abstract

Silicon and germanium are transparent up to approximately 8 μm and 15 μm, respectively, thus offering a range of applications in biochemical and environmental sensing, medicine, astronomy and communications [1]. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI), can be used only up to 4 μm due to the high absorption loss of silicon dioxide, and therefore alternative material platforms have to be utilized for longer wavelengths. Also, to fully exploit the transparency range of SOI, 400 or 500 nm thick overlayers need to be used rather than the most popular 220 nm platform [2]. In this paper we report record low loss MIR SOI strip and slot waveguides, as well as Vernier racetrack configurations. If the buried oxide can be removed and replaced with air, such a platform would be transparent up to 8 μm. We report a robust design based on single etch suspended Si waveguides. Ge-on-Si waveguides have already been demonstrated with losses of 2.5-3.0 dB/cm at λ = 5.8 μm by Chang et. al [3] and Shen et. al [4]. We report a record low loss in Ge-on-Si and a demonstration of all optical modulation in such waveguides. Although Si is transparent beyond 1.1 μm, it has been demonstrated that it can be used as a photodetector if mid-bandgap states are created by ion implantation. In this paper we show that detection in Si can be extended to up to 2.5 μm by implantation of SOI waveguides with boron. Finally, we also report theoretical analysis of electroabsorption and electrorefraction in Ge.

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Published date: 2015
Venue - Dates: Summer Topicals Meeting Series 2015, Nassau, Bahamas, 2015-07-12 - 2015-07-14

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 442667
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/442667
PURE UUID: e2addcac-2165-43a0-a253-b10685ddd667
ORCID for M. Nedeljković: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-9170-7911
ORCID for J. Soler Penadés: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1706-8533
ORCID for C.J. Mitchell: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9773-8842
ORCID for S. Stanković: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-6154-3138
ORCID for A.C. Peacock: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1940-7172

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Date deposited: 23 Jul 2020 16:30
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 05:10

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Contributors

Author: G.T. Reed
Author: M. Nedeljković ORCID iD
Author: J. Soler Penadés ORCID iD
Author: C.J. Mitchell ORCID iD
Author: A.Z. Khokhar
Author: S. Stanković ORCID iD
Author: Benedetto Troia
Author: V.M.N. Passaro
Author: L. Shen
Author: N. Healy
Author: A.C. Peacock ORCID iD
Author: A. Ortega-Moñux
Author: G. Wangüemert-Pérez
Author: I. Molina-Fernández
Author: P. Cheben
Author: J.J. Ackert
Author: A.P. Knights
Author: D.J. Thomson
Author: F.Y. Gardes

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