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Assessing the effect of global travel and contact reductions to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic and resurgence

Assessing the effect of global travel and contact reductions to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic and resurgence
Assessing the effect of global travel and contact reductions to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic and resurgence
Travel and physical distancing interventions have been implemented across the World to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic, but studies are needed to quantify the effectiveness of these measures across regions and time. Timely population mobility data were obtained to measure travel and contact reductions in 135 countries or territories. During the 10 weeks of March 22 - May 30, 2020, domestic travel in study regions has dramatically reduced to a median of 59% (interquartile range [IQR] 43% - 73%) of normal levels seen before the outbreak, with international travel down to 26% (IQR 12% - 35%). If these travel and physical distancing interventions had not been deployed across the World, the cumulative number of cases might have shown a 97-fold (IQR 79 - 116) increase, as of May 31, 2020. However, effectiveness differed by the duration and intensity of interventions and relaxation scenarios, with variations in case severity seen across populations, regions, and seasons.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Funding StatementThis study was supported by the grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1134076); the European Union Horizon 2020 (MOOD 874850). N.R. is supported by funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1170969). O.P. is supported by the National Science Foundation (1816075). A.J.T. is supported by funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1106427, OPP1032350, OPP1134076, OPP1094793), the Clinton Health Access Initiative, the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the Wellcome Trust (106866/Z/15/Z, 204613/Z/16/Z). Author DeclarationsI confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.YesThe details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:Ethical clearance for collecting and using secondary population mobility data was granted by the institutional review board of the University of Southampton (No. 48002). All data were supplied and analyzed in an anonymous format, without access to personal identifying information.All necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).Yes I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesCode for the model simulations is available at the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/wpgp/BEARmod. The data on COVID-19 cases and interventions reported by country are available from the data sources listed in Supplementary Materials. The parameters and population data for running simulations and estimating the severity are listed in Supplementary Data S1 to S2. The population movement data obtained from Baidu are available at: https://qianxi.baidu.com/. The Google COVID-19 Aggregated Mobility Research Dataset used for this study is available with permission of Google, LLC.
medRxiv
Lai, Shengjie
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Ruktanonchai, Nick W.
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Carioli, Alessandra
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Ruktanonchai, Corrine
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Floyd, Jessica
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Prosper, Olivia
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Zhang, Chi
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Du, Xiangjun
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Yang, Weizhong
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Tatem, Andrew J.
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Lai, Shengjie
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Ruktanonchai, Nick W.
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Carioli, Alessandra
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Ruktanonchai, Corrine
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Floyd, Jessica
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Prosper, Olivia
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Zhang, Chi
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Du, Xiangjun
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Yang, Weizhong
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Tatem, Andrew J.
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Lai, Shengjie, Ruktanonchai, Nick W., Carioli, Alessandra, Ruktanonchai, Corrine, Floyd, Jessica, Prosper, Olivia, Zhang, Chi, Du, Xiangjun, Yang, Weizhong and Tatem, Andrew J. (2020) Assessing the effect of global travel and contact reductions to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic and resurgence medRxiv 16pp. (doi:10.1101/2020.06.17.20133843).

Record type: Monograph (Working Paper)

Abstract

Travel and physical distancing interventions have been implemented across the World to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic, but studies are needed to quantify the effectiveness of these measures across regions and time. Timely population mobility data were obtained to measure travel and contact reductions in 135 countries or territories. During the 10 weeks of March 22 - May 30, 2020, domestic travel in study regions has dramatically reduced to a median of 59% (interquartile range [IQR] 43% - 73%) of normal levels seen before the outbreak, with international travel down to 26% (IQR 12% - 35%). If these travel and physical distancing interventions had not been deployed across the World, the cumulative number of cases might have shown a 97-fold (IQR 79 - 116) increase, as of May 31, 2020. However, effectiveness differed by the duration and intensity of interventions and relaxation scenarios, with variations in case severity seen across populations, regions, and seasons.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Funding StatementThis study was supported by the grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1134076); the European Union Horizon 2020 (MOOD 874850). N.R. is supported by funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1170969). O.P. is supported by the National Science Foundation (1816075). A.J.T. is supported by funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1106427, OPP1032350, OPP1134076, OPP1094793), the Clinton Health Access Initiative, the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the Wellcome Trust (106866/Z/15/Z, 204613/Z/16/Z). Author DeclarationsI confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.YesThe details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:Ethical clearance for collecting and using secondary population mobility data was granted by the institutional review board of the University of Southampton (No. 48002). All data were supplied and analyzed in an anonymous format, without access to personal identifying information.All necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).Yes I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesCode for the model simulations is available at the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/wpgp/BEARmod. The data on COVID-19 cases and interventions reported by country are available from the data sources listed in Supplementary Materials. The parameters and population data for running simulations and estimating the severity are listed in Supplementary Data S1 to S2. The population movement data obtained from Baidu are available at: https://qianxi.baidu.com/. The Google COVID-19 Aggregated Mobility Research Dataset used for this study is available with permission of Google, LLC.

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2020.06.17.20133843v1.full - Author's Original
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Published date: 19 June 2020

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Local EPrints ID: 442737
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/442737
PURE UUID: 3f83fc2d-e4f5-444f-a057-978ba91ad337
ORCID for Shengjie Lai: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9781-8148
ORCID for Andrew J. Tatem: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-7270-941X

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Date deposited: 24 Jul 2020 16:30
Last modified: 25 Jul 2020 01:50

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Contributors

Author: Shengjie Lai ORCID iD
Author: Alessandra Carioli
Author: Corrine Ruktanonchai
Author: Jessica Floyd
Author: Olivia Prosper
Author: Chi Zhang
Author: Xiangjun Du
Author: Weizhong Yang
Author: Andrew J. Tatem ORCID iD

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