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Associations between mode of delivery and offspring overweight/obesity: findings from the studying lifecourse Obesity PrEdictors (SLOPE) population-based cohort

Associations between mode of delivery and offspring overweight/obesity: findings from the studying lifecourse Obesity PrEdictors (SLOPE) population-based cohort
Associations between mode of delivery and offspring overweight/obesity: findings from the studying lifecourse Obesity PrEdictors (SLOPE) population-based cohort
Background: Childhood obesity affects one in ten children in England by age 5, and one in five by age 11. Existing evidence suggests a possible relationship between caesarean section (CS) birth and higher risk of overweight/obesity in childhood, however maternal obesity is a strong confounder in this relationship. With CS rates rising by 4% globally per year, we aimed to examine the relationship between mode of delivery and overweight/obesity in childhood. Methods: SLOPE is a linked population-based cohort of anonymised routine antenatal, birth and child healthcare records in Hampshire, UK (2003–2018). Delivery method was categorised into unassisted vaginal delivery, assisted vaginal delivery and CS (including elective and emergency). Child body mass index (BMI) was measured as part of the National Child Measurement Programme in England. Children were identified as overweight/obese if their age- and sex-adjusted BMI was above the 85th percentile. Generalised linear modelling for outcome at two time points; 4–5 years (n=30,229) and 10–11 years (n=14,305) was conducted, adjusting for clustering within families. Modelling was introduced in stages with the choice of covariates informed by a Directed Acyclic Graph, first adjusting for maternal BMI, then adding in confounders including maternal age, ethnicity, educational attainment, parity, smoking status at booking appointment, pre-eclampsia, and previous CS (model C) and then birthweight and gestational age at birth as potential mediators (model M). Analyses were also stratified by maternal BMI category (underweight: <18.5, normal weight: 18.5 to <25, overweight: 25 to <30, obese: ≥30 kg/m2) at booking. Results: Of children delivered by CS, 25.0% and 33.7% were overweight/obese by 4–5 years and 10–11 years respectively, compared to 21.9% and 31.0% respectively with vaginal births. In unadjusted analysis, CS was associated with increased risk of overweight/obesity at 4–5 years (relative risk (RR) 1.13, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 1.08–1.19), and at 10–11 years (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.14), however both were attenuated by adjusting for maternal BMI. In stratified analyses, CS delivery was associated with increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity at 4–5 years only in normal weight women (model C: RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04–1.27, model M: RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02–1.26), but not in 10–11 year models. Conclusion: Maternal weight status at the start of pregnancy is a strong confounder in the relationship between mode of delivery and childhood overweight/obesity. In stratified analyses, this association was evident only for children of normal weight women. If this relationship is causal, the potential mechanisms need to be explored.
0143-005X
A19-A20
Simpson, Alyssia
33a62b91-9ab2-4581-94f2-1c0e21ed6ee1
Grove, Grace
a1217e04-d992-44d1-9ecf-c8e8202cd2d7
Ziauddeen, Nida
8b233a4a-9763-410b-90c7-df5c7d1a26e4
Alwan, Nisreen
0d37b320-f325-4ed3-ba51-0fe2866d5382
Simpson, Alyssia
33a62b91-9ab2-4581-94f2-1c0e21ed6ee1
Grove, Grace
a1217e04-d992-44d1-9ecf-c8e8202cd2d7
Ziauddeen, Nida
8b233a4a-9763-410b-90c7-df5c7d1a26e4
Alwan, Nisreen
0d37b320-f325-4ed3-ba51-0fe2866d5382

Simpson, Alyssia, Grove, Grace, Ziauddeen, Nida and Alwan, Nisreen (2020) Associations between mode of delivery and offspring overweight/obesity: findings from the studying lifecourse Obesity PrEdictors (SLOPE) population-based cohort. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 74 (Supplement 1), A19-A20. (doi:10.1136/jech-2020-SSMabstracts.41).

Record type: Meeting abstract

Abstract

Background: Childhood obesity affects one in ten children in England by age 5, and one in five by age 11. Existing evidence suggests a possible relationship between caesarean section (CS) birth and higher risk of overweight/obesity in childhood, however maternal obesity is a strong confounder in this relationship. With CS rates rising by 4% globally per year, we aimed to examine the relationship between mode of delivery and overweight/obesity in childhood. Methods: SLOPE is a linked population-based cohort of anonymised routine antenatal, birth and child healthcare records in Hampshire, UK (2003–2018). Delivery method was categorised into unassisted vaginal delivery, assisted vaginal delivery and CS (including elective and emergency). Child body mass index (BMI) was measured as part of the National Child Measurement Programme in England. Children were identified as overweight/obese if their age- and sex-adjusted BMI was above the 85th percentile. Generalised linear modelling for outcome at two time points; 4–5 years (n=30,229) and 10–11 years (n=14,305) was conducted, adjusting for clustering within families. Modelling was introduced in stages with the choice of covariates informed by a Directed Acyclic Graph, first adjusting for maternal BMI, then adding in confounders including maternal age, ethnicity, educational attainment, parity, smoking status at booking appointment, pre-eclampsia, and previous CS (model C) and then birthweight and gestational age at birth as potential mediators (model M). Analyses were also stratified by maternal BMI category (underweight: <18.5, normal weight: 18.5 to <25, overweight: 25 to <30, obese: ≥30 kg/m2) at booking. Results: Of children delivered by CS, 25.0% and 33.7% were overweight/obese by 4–5 years and 10–11 years respectively, compared to 21.9% and 31.0% respectively with vaginal births. In unadjusted analysis, CS was associated with increased risk of overweight/obesity at 4–5 years (relative risk (RR) 1.13, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 1.08–1.19), and at 10–11 years (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.14), however both were attenuated by adjusting for maternal BMI. In stratified analyses, CS delivery was associated with increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity at 4–5 years only in normal weight women (model C: RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04–1.27, model M: RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02–1.26), but not in 10–11 year models. Conclusion: Maternal weight status at the start of pregnancy is a strong confounder in the relationship between mode of delivery and childhood overweight/obesity. In stratified analyses, this association was evident only for children of normal weight women. If this relationship is causal, the potential mechanisms need to be explored.

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Published date: 24 August 2020

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 443758
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/443758
ISSN: 0143-005X
PURE UUID: 7c4b62d5-c5ed-44ba-86e0-69abe772e111
ORCID for Nisreen Alwan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4134-8463

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Date deposited: 11 Sep 2020 16:30
Last modified: 13 Dec 2021 03:15

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Contributors

Author: Alyssia Simpson
Author: Grace Grove
Author: Nida Ziauddeen
Author: Nisreen Alwan ORCID iD

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