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Efficient method for the computation of lightning current distributions in wind turbine blades using the Fourier transform and the finite element method

Efficient method for the computation of lightning current distributions in wind turbine blades using the Fourier transform and the finite element method
Efficient method for the computation of lightning current distributions in wind turbine blades using the Fourier transform and the finite element method
Rotor blades of large, modern wind turbines are susceptible to lightning strikes. In order to produce a design that resists lightning strikes, it is crucial to simulate lightning current propagation in the blade components. Since the current in the blade is generated by the superposition of potential and induced electric fields, a coupling exists between electric and magnetic fields which need to be calculated by an imposed integral constraint at each time step. Commercial software packages can deal with such constraints, but it results in time-consuming computations. Therefore, this work aims to develop a numerical methodology able to compute the voltage which drives the lightning current through the structure. In this way, the problem is reformulated as a voltage-driven one which in turn allows a simple subsequent coupling of electrical and magnetic problems. The computation of the voltage waveform was accomplished using the fast Fourier transform and the finite element method (FEM) to compute the structure impedance in the frequency domain. The developed procedure showed high efficiency for a blade subjected to different lightning impulses. It allows a description of the time-dependent lightning current to be given, as well as the distribution of current within the blade conductors.
fast Fourier transform; lightning current distributions; potential fields; time-consuming computations; modern wind turbines; voltage-driven; commercial software packages; magnetic problems; blade conductors; different lightning impulses; numerical methodology; imposed integral constraint; blade components; rotor blades; electrical problems; finite element method; time-dependent lightning; voltage waveform; induced electric fields; resists lightning strikes; lightning current propagation; magnetic fields; wind turbine blades; simple subsequent coupling
1751-8830
786 – 799
Laudani, Antonio AM
93238b6a-3643-474f-b52d-c711c0f6149d
Carloni, Lisa
b70d68c0-1454-4ceb-ad68-7501d91ccb91
Thomsen, Ole
f3e60b22-a09f-4d58-90da-d58e37d68047
Lewin, Paul
78b4fc49-1cb3-4db9-ba90-3ae70c0f639e
Golosnoy, Igor O.
40603f91-7488-49ea-830f-24dd930573d1
Laudani, Antonio AM
93238b6a-3643-474f-b52d-c711c0f6149d
Carloni, Lisa
b70d68c0-1454-4ceb-ad68-7501d91ccb91
Thomsen, Ole
f3e60b22-a09f-4d58-90da-d58e37d68047
Lewin, Paul
78b4fc49-1cb3-4db9-ba90-3ae70c0f639e
Golosnoy, Igor O.
40603f91-7488-49ea-830f-24dd930573d1

Laudani, Antonio AM, Carloni, Lisa, Thomsen, Ole, Lewin, Paul and Golosnoy, Igor O. (2020) Efficient method for the computation of lightning current distributions in wind turbine blades using the Fourier transform and the finite element method. IET Science, Measurement & Technology, 14 (7), 786 – 799. (doi:10.1049/iet-smt.2019.0343).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Rotor blades of large, modern wind turbines are susceptible to lightning strikes. In order to produce a design that resists lightning strikes, it is crucial to simulate lightning current propagation in the blade components. Since the current in the blade is generated by the superposition of potential and induced electric fields, a coupling exists between electric and magnetic fields which need to be calculated by an imposed integral constraint at each time step. Commercial software packages can deal with such constraints, but it results in time-consuming computations. Therefore, this work aims to develop a numerical methodology able to compute the voltage which drives the lightning current through the structure. In this way, the problem is reformulated as a voltage-driven one which in turn allows a simple subsequent coupling of electrical and magnetic problems. The computation of the voltage waveform was accomplished using the fast Fourier transform and the finite element method (FEM) to compute the structure impedance in the frequency domain. The developed procedure showed high efficiency for a blade subjected to different lightning impulses. It allows a description of the time-dependent lightning current to be given, as well as the distribution of current within the blade conductors.

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IETPaper-AL_Production_FINAL - Accepted Manuscript
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More information

Published date: 1 September 2020
Keywords: fast Fourier transform; lightning current distributions; potential fields; time-consuming computations; modern wind turbines; voltage-driven; commercial software packages; magnetic problems; blade conductors; different lightning impulses; numerical methodology; imposed integral constraint; blade components; rotor blades; electrical problems; finite element method; time-dependent lightning; voltage waveform; induced electric fields; resists lightning strikes; lightning current propagation; magnetic fields; wind turbine blades; simple subsequent coupling

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 443948
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/443948
ISSN: 1751-8830
PURE UUID: e7f5a28e-81f2-4f58-b0f8-483dd9355f54

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 17 Sep 2020 16:41
Last modified: 30 Nov 2020 17:34

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