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Flat-pack, rapid production powered air purifying respirators for Low-Resource Settings amid the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic

Flat-pack, rapid production powered air purifying respirators for Low-Resource Settings amid the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic
Flat-pack, rapid production powered air purifying respirators for Low-Resource Settings amid the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic
Healthcare workers are at high risk of catching SARS-CoV-2 because of their regular interaction with patients with the disease. In low-resource settings, the ratio of healthcare workers to the whole population is lower than in high income countries, and there is often limited access to personal protective equipment (PPE). Illness or death of healthcare workers will, therefore, have a disproportionate impact in these settings, so it is particularly important to find ways to protect them.

To protect against airborne infection in healthcare settings, PPE recommendations typically include filtering facemask respirators or powered air purifying respirators (PAPR). The former, passively filter inhaled air. They are small, noiseless and do not require a power supply, but they are single-use, presenting manufacturing and supply issues. Fit testing is crucial, and many users find them difficult to tolerate, due to breathing resistance and elevated humidity. There is also the potential for contamination due to the exposed face. PAPRs are re-usable devices that may last for months and provide airflow through a filter from a battery-powered blower unit to a hood or helmet which covers the face. This creates a positive pressure in the hood or helmet that enables the wearer to breathe filtered air easily, without requiring an air-tight fit needed for standard face masks. This is reported to be more comfortable and provides better protection for the face from droplets and splashes, and infection by self-contact with the hands. PAPRs have typically been expensive, bulky and not readily available or easy to ship to low-resource settings.

The aim of this paper is to design, develop and provide open-source instructions for building a low-cost, reusable PAPR. The design is novel because it uses readily available materials and manufacturing processes, and it may be shipped flat-packed and easily assembled. This offers an option for manufacturing in low-resource settings and for shipping in bulk. This paper provides the CAD designs that can be fabricated using a laser cutter.
De Grazia, Antonio
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Diment, Laura
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Regas, Constantinos
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Rosini, Sebastian
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Garay Baquero, Diana
da9136fe-3d47-4d04-8ab3-96bfe17a773c
Hale, Nicholas W
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Mingels, Roel
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Mattinsley, Philip
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Dickinson, Alexander
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Elkington, Paul
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Mavrogordato, Mark
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De Grazia, Antonio
cb3a7bf4-094b-4206-812e-b5537760f1e8
Diment, Laura
ae7297b9-3a62-4e7c-a52d-49aba51b7608
Regas, Constantinos
eef3cec5-ec27-44f2-91d5-19bdc30285dd
Rosini, Sebastian
5ee1c836-a1a6-47fd-84c1-7386ec72e334
Garay Baquero, Diana
da9136fe-3d47-4d04-8ab3-96bfe17a773c
Hale, Nicholas W
217e47e7-88d2-4e53-a43e-3d6c822edf76
Mingels, Roel
5aff76af-9298-44d6-9a58-a5279cf8c011
Mattinsley, Philip
5c75b3e3-5e0b-4ab6-93c8-465ae68fa70c
Dickinson, Alexander
626ef76a-f4d0-4287-a830-d92851574b3b
Elkington, Paul
60828c7c-3d32-47c9-9fcc-6c4c54c35a15
Mavrogordato, Mark
f3e0879b-118a-463a-a130-1c890e9ab547

De Grazia, Antonio, Diment, Laura, Regas, Constantinos, Rosini, Sebastian, Garay Baquero, Diana, Hale, Nicholas W, Mingels, Roel, Mattinsley, Philip, Dickinson, Alexander, Elkington, Paul and Mavrogordato, Mark (2020) Flat-pack, rapid production powered air purifying respirators for Low-Resource Settings amid the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. engrXiv.

Record type: Article

Abstract

Healthcare workers are at high risk of catching SARS-CoV-2 because of their regular interaction with patients with the disease. In low-resource settings, the ratio of healthcare workers to the whole population is lower than in high income countries, and there is often limited access to personal protective equipment (PPE). Illness or death of healthcare workers will, therefore, have a disproportionate impact in these settings, so it is particularly important to find ways to protect them.

To protect against airborne infection in healthcare settings, PPE recommendations typically include filtering facemask respirators or powered air purifying respirators (PAPR). The former, passively filter inhaled air. They are small, noiseless and do not require a power supply, but they are single-use, presenting manufacturing and supply issues. Fit testing is crucial, and many users find them difficult to tolerate, due to breathing resistance and elevated humidity. There is also the potential for contamination due to the exposed face. PAPRs are re-usable devices that may last for months and provide airflow through a filter from a battery-powered blower unit to a hood or helmet which covers the face. This creates a positive pressure in the hood or helmet that enables the wearer to breathe filtered air easily, without requiring an air-tight fit needed for standard face masks. This is reported to be more comfortable and provides better protection for the face from droplets and splashes, and infection by self-contact with the hands. PAPRs have typically been expensive, bulky and not readily available or easy to ship to low-resource settings.

The aim of this paper is to design, develop and provide open-source instructions for building a low-cost, reusable PAPR. The design is novel because it uses readily available materials and manufacturing processes, and it may be shipped flat-packed and easily assembled. This offers an option for manufacturing in low-resource settings and for shipping in bulk. This paper provides the CAD designs that can be fabricated using a laser cutter.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

In preparation date: 9 October 2020

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 444371
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/444371
PURE UUID: 477b8d29-bffa-44c5-955b-633aa35837ef
ORCID for Diana Garay Baquero: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-9450-8504
ORCID for Paul Elkington: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-0390-0613

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 14 Oct 2020 16:31
Last modified: 16 Jun 2021 01:58

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Contributors

Author: Laura Diment
Author: Constantinos Regas
Author: Sebastian Rosini
Author: Diana Garay Baquero ORCID iD
Author: Nicholas W Hale
Author: Roel Mingels
Author: Philip Mattinsley
Author: Alexander Dickinson
Author: Paul Elkington ORCID iD

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