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Evaluating the sensor-equipped autonomous surface vehicle C-Worker 4 as a tool for identifying coastal ocean acidification and changes in carbonate chemistry

Evaluating the sensor-equipped autonomous surface vehicle C-Worker 4 as a tool for identifying coastal ocean acidification and changes in carbonate chemistry
Evaluating the sensor-equipped autonomous surface vehicle C-Worker 4 as a tool for identifying coastal ocean acidification and changes in carbonate chemistry
The interface between land and sea is a key environment for biogeochemical carbon cycling, yet these dynamic environments are traditionally under sampled. Logistical limitations have historically precluded a comprehensive understanding of coastal zone processes, including ocean acidification. Using sensors on autonomous platforms is a promising approach to enhance data collection in these environments. Here, we evaluate the use of an autonomous surface vehicle (ASV), the C-Worker 4 (CW4), equipped with pH and pCO2 sensors and with the capacity to mount additional sensors for up to 10 other parameters, for the collection of high-resolution data in shallow coastal environments. We deployed the CW4 on two occasions in Belizean coastal waters for 2.5 and 4 days, demonstrating its capability for high-resolution spatial mapping of surface coastal biogeochemistry. This enabled the characterisation of small-scale variability and the identification of sources of low pH/high pCO2 waters as well as identifying potential controls on coastal pH. We demonstrated the capabilities of the CW4 in both pre-planned “autonomous” mission mode and remote “manually” operated mode. After documenting platform behaviour, we provide recommendations for further usage, such as the ideal mode of operation for better quality pH data, e.g., using constant speed. The CW4 has a high power supply capacity, which permits the deployment of multiple sensors sampling concurrently, a shallow draught, and is highly controllable and manoeuvrable. This makes it a highly suitable tool for observing and characterising the carbonate system alongside identifying potential drivers and controls in shallow coastal regions.
ASV, Autonomous, Biogeochemistry, Coastal, Monitoring, Ocean acidification, PCO, PH, Sensors
939
Cryer, Sarah Elizabeth
16bfcad1-bb17-4215-8aa9-bf1d3f6ab127
Carvalho, Filipa
36e42d6d-2fe2-444d-9c23-0d49194bbe4e
Wood, Terry
5aab4e83-a4df-4083-b1e9-c0c56af559c5
Strong, James Asa
b4c05e42-498c-4890-ae76-e7c6809c0ff3
Brown, Peter
c6e4857d-84f4-48e5-aded-0a68462bdc7a
Loucaides, Socratis
111b4794-fe50-480c-9156-454c3479b87f
Young, Arlene
e4156317-5b3e-4955-8543-1bbdad5c3947
Sanders, Richard
02c163c1-8f5e-49ad-857c-d28f7da66c65
Evans, Claire
93350709-cad3-4adf-8483-9bee595412f4
Cryer, Sarah Elizabeth
16bfcad1-bb17-4215-8aa9-bf1d3f6ab127
Carvalho, Filipa
36e42d6d-2fe2-444d-9c23-0d49194bbe4e
Wood, Terry
5aab4e83-a4df-4083-b1e9-c0c56af559c5
Strong, James Asa
b4c05e42-498c-4890-ae76-e7c6809c0ff3
Brown, Peter
c6e4857d-84f4-48e5-aded-0a68462bdc7a
Loucaides, Socratis
111b4794-fe50-480c-9156-454c3479b87f
Young, Arlene
e4156317-5b3e-4955-8543-1bbdad5c3947
Sanders, Richard
02c163c1-8f5e-49ad-857c-d28f7da66c65
Evans, Claire
93350709-cad3-4adf-8483-9bee595412f4

Cryer, Sarah Elizabeth, Carvalho, Filipa, Wood, Terry, Strong, James Asa, Brown, Peter, Loucaides, Socratis, Young, Arlene, Sanders, Richard and Evans, Claire (2020) Evaluating the sensor-equipped autonomous surface vehicle C-Worker 4 as a tool for identifying coastal ocean acidification and changes in carbonate chemistry. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8 (11), 939. (doi:10.3390/jmse8110939).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The interface between land and sea is a key environment for biogeochemical carbon cycling, yet these dynamic environments are traditionally under sampled. Logistical limitations have historically precluded a comprehensive understanding of coastal zone processes, including ocean acidification. Using sensors on autonomous platforms is a promising approach to enhance data collection in these environments. Here, we evaluate the use of an autonomous surface vehicle (ASV), the C-Worker 4 (CW4), equipped with pH and pCO2 sensors and with the capacity to mount additional sensors for up to 10 other parameters, for the collection of high-resolution data in shallow coastal environments. We deployed the CW4 on two occasions in Belizean coastal waters for 2.5 and 4 days, demonstrating its capability for high-resolution spatial mapping of surface coastal biogeochemistry. This enabled the characterisation of small-scale variability and the identification of sources of low pH/high pCO2 waters as well as identifying potential controls on coastal pH. We demonstrated the capabilities of the CW4 in both pre-planned “autonomous” mission mode and remote “manually” operated mode. After documenting platform behaviour, we provide recommendations for further usage, such as the ideal mode of operation for better quality pH data, e.g., using constant speed. The CW4 has a high power supply capacity, which permits the deployment of multiple sensors sampling concurrently, a shallow draught, and is highly controllable and manoeuvrable. This makes it a highly suitable tool for observing and characterising the carbonate system alongside identifying potential drivers and controls in shallow coastal regions.

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Accepted/In Press date: 19 November 2020
Published date: 19 November 2020
Keywords: ASV, Autonomous, Biogeochemistry, Coastal, Monitoring, Ocean acidification, PCO, PH, Sensors

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 445916
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/445916
PURE UUID: 332d3c5c-8b63-468d-9182-2fda5c5b58ee
ORCID for Sarah Elizabeth Cryer: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-7192-7426

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 13 Jan 2021 17:32
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 03:17

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Contributors

Author: Filipa Carvalho
Author: Terry Wood
Author: James Asa Strong
Author: Peter Brown
Author: Socratis Loucaides
Author: Arlene Young
Author: Richard Sanders
Author: Claire Evans

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