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Connectivity and network development of carbonate-hosted fault damage zones from western Malta

Connectivity and network development of carbonate-hosted fault damage zones from western Malta
Connectivity and network development of carbonate-hosted fault damage zones from western Malta
Using outcrop-based examples, we investigate the topological and graph characteristics of various fault damage zones in carbonate rocks on Malta. The damage zone fracture networks are analysed as a series of nodes (isolated I-nodes; connected Y/X-nodes) and branches (II-, IC-, CC-branches), which may link to form connected components and fracture-bounded regions. We compare the metrics of the different nodes, branches, regions and components that make-up each damage zone fracture network, calculating parameters that assess their connectivity. Results identify distinct topological signatures and graph metrics for different tip-, relay- and splay-damage zones, providing a new classification that describes and quantifies their arrangement and connectivity. Placing the studied damage zones in a fault evolutionary model highlights topological pathways whereby tip-damage zones, dominated by I-nodes and II-branches, give way to relay-damage zones, dominated by Y-nodes and CC-branches. During this process, tree-like components link to form larger interconnected components with many regions. This systematically changes the graph metrics of the network increasing the number of branches and regions relative to nodes and components. The topological pathways and graph metrics provide important insights into how damages zones might develop as faults propagate, interact and link and could have implications when assessing their importance for fluid-flow.
0191-8141
Nixon, Casey W.
cdb2aef0-3e2b-4263-bbf3-86aca66bd4c0
Nærland, Kari
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Rotevatn, Atle
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Dimmen, Vilde
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Sanderson, David J.
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Kristensen, Thomas B.
60b07f93-a7c4-44a9-bb0d-98771acdb771
Nixon, Casey W.
cdb2aef0-3e2b-4263-bbf3-86aca66bd4c0
Nærland, Kari
fd0dec9d-a024-4a23-b707-7a6e822509c7
Rotevatn, Atle
a5811643-0e5c-4b86-9145-54f5810fbe4c
Dimmen, Vilde
b7f0e481-f69a-4b28-baa8-479bc8026b07
Sanderson, David J.
5653bc11-b905-4985-8c16-c655b2170ba9
Kristensen, Thomas B.
60b07f93-a7c4-44a9-bb0d-98771acdb771

Nixon, Casey W., Nærland, Kari, Rotevatn, Atle, Dimmen, Vilde, Sanderson, David J. and Kristensen, Thomas B. (2020) Connectivity and network development of carbonate-hosted fault damage zones from western Malta. Journal of Structural Geology, 141, [104212]. (doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2020.104212).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Using outcrop-based examples, we investigate the topological and graph characteristics of various fault damage zones in carbonate rocks on Malta. The damage zone fracture networks are analysed as a series of nodes (isolated I-nodes; connected Y/X-nodes) and branches (II-, IC-, CC-branches), which may link to form connected components and fracture-bounded regions. We compare the metrics of the different nodes, branches, regions and components that make-up each damage zone fracture network, calculating parameters that assess their connectivity. Results identify distinct topological signatures and graph metrics for different tip-, relay- and splay-damage zones, providing a new classification that describes and quantifies their arrangement and connectivity. Placing the studied damage zones in a fault evolutionary model highlights topological pathways whereby tip-damage zones, dominated by I-nodes and II-branches, give way to relay-damage zones, dominated by Y-nodes and CC-branches. During this process, tree-like components link to form larger interconnected components with many regions. This systematically changes the graph metrics of the network increasing the number of branches and regions relative to nodes and components. The topological pathways and graph metrics provide important insights into how damages zones might develop as faults propagate, interact and link and could have implications when assessing their importance for fluid-flow.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 2 October 2020
e-pub ahead of print date: 7 October 2020
Published date: 1 December 2020

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 446174
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/446174
ISSN: 0191-8141
PURE UUID: 5b7be2cd-fb11-439e-a943-cabb2a9a452d
ORCID for David J. Sanderson: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2144-3527

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 26 Jan 2021 17:31
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 02:53

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Contributors

Author: Casey W. Nixon
Author: Kari Nærland
Author: Atle Rotevatn
Author: Vilde Dimmen
Author: Thomas B. Kristensen

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