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Towards improved monitoring of offshore carbon storage: A real-world field experiment detecting a controlled sub-seafloor CO2 release

Towards improved monitoring of offshore carbon storage: A real-world field experiment detecting a controlled sub-seafloor CO2 release
Towards improved monitoring of offshore carbon storage: A real-world field experiment detecting a controlled sub-seafloor CO2 release
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key technology to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial processes in a feasible, substantial, and timely manner. For geological CO2 storage to be safe, reliable, and accepted by society, robust strategies for CO2 leakage detection, quantification and management are crucial. The STEMM-CCS (Strategies for Environmental Monitoring of Marine Carbon Capture and Storage) project aimed to provide techniques and understanding to enable and inform cost-effective monitoring of CCS sites in the marine environment. A controlled CO2 release experiment was carried out in the central North Sea, designed to mimic an unintended emission of CO2 from a subsurface CO2 storage site to the seafloor. A total of 675 kg of CO2 were released into the shallow sediments (∼3 m below seafloor), at flow rates between 6 and 143 kg/d. A combination of novel techniques, adapted versions of existing techniques, and well-proven standard techniques were used to detect, characterise and quantify gaseous and dissolved CO2 in the sediments and the overlying seawater. This paper provides an overview of this ambitious field experiment. We describe the preparatory work prior to the release experiment, the experimental layout and procedures, the methods tested, and summarise the main results and the lessons learnt.
Attribution, detection and quantification, CO leakage, Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), Marine field experiment, Monitoring, Offshore carbon storage
1750-5836
Flohr, Anita
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Schaap, Allison
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Flohr, Anita
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Schaap, Allison
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Achterberg, Eric P.
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Berndt, Christian
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Blackford, Jerry
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Brown, Robin
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Bull, Jonathan M.
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Carter, Liam
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Chen, Baixin
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Dewar, Marius
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Durden, Jennifer M.
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Elsen, Saskia
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Leighton, Timothy G.
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Li, Jianghui
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Lichtschlag, Anna
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Linke, Peter
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Matter, Juerg M.
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Roche, Ben
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Flohr, Anita, Schaap, Allison, Achterberg, Eric P., Alendal, Guttorm, Arundell, Martin, Berndt, Christian, Blackford, Jerry, Böttner, Christoph, Borisov, Sergey M., Brown, Robin, Bull, Jonathan M., Carter, Liam, Chen, Baixin, Dale, Andrew W., De Beer, Dirk, Dean, Marcella, Deusner, Christian, Dewar, Marius, Durden, Jennifer M., Elsen, Saskia, Esposito, Mario, Faggetter, Michael, Fischer, Jan P., Gana, Amine, Gros, Jonas, Haeckel, Matthias, Hanz, Rudolf, Holtappels, Moritz, Hosking, Brett, Huvenne, Veerle A.i., James, Rachael H., Koopmans, Dirk, Kossel, Elke, Leighton, Timothy G., Li, Jianghui, Lichtschlag, Anna, Linke, Peter, Loucaides, Socratis, Martínez-cabanas, María, Matter, Juerg M., Mesher, Thomas, Monk, Samuel, Mowlem, Matthew, Oleynik, Anna, Papadimitriou, Stathys, Paxton, David, Pearce, Christopher R., Peel, Kate, Roche, Ben, Ruhl, Henry A., Saleem, Umer, Sands, Carla, Saw, Kevin, Schmidt, Mark, Sommer, Stefan, Strong, James A., Triest, Jack, Ungerböck, Birgit, Walk, John, White, Paul, Widdicombe, Steve, Wilson, Robert Euan, Wright, Hannah, Wyatt, James and Connelly, Douglas (2021) Towards improved monitoring of offshore carbon storage: A real-world field experiment detecting a controlled sub-seafloor CO2 release. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 106, [103237]. (doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2020.103237).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key technology to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial processes in a feasible, substantial, and timely manner. For geological CO2 storage to be safe, reliable, and accepted by society, robust strategies for CO2 leakage detection, quantification and management are crucial. The STEMM-CCS (Strategies for Environmental Monitoring of Marine Carbon Capture and Storage) project aimed to provide techniques and understanding to enable and inform cost-effective monitoring of CCS sites in the marine environment. A controlled CO2 release experiment was carried out in the central North Sea, designed to mimic an unintended emission of CO2 from a subsurface CO2 storage site to the seafloor. A total of 675 kg of CO2 were released into the shallow sediments (∼3 m below seafloor), at flow rates between 6 and 143 kg/d. A combination of novel techniques, adapted versions of existing techniques, and well-proven standard techniques were used to detect, characterise and quantify gaseous and dissolved CO2 in the sediments and the overlying seawater. This paper provides an overview of this ambitious field experiment. We describe the preparatory work prior to the release experiment, the experimental layout and procedures, the methods tested, and summarise the main results and the lessons learnt.

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Accepted/In Press date: 18 December 2020
e-pub ahead of print date: 23 January 2021
Published date: 1 March 2021
Keywords: Attribution, detection and quantification, CO leakage, Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), Marine field experiment, Monitoring, Offshore carbon storage

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 446236
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/446236
ISSN: 1750-5836
PURE UUID: b1f6b2d6-9f0d-4206-8dd4-46f082a49856
ORCID for Anita Flohr: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-5018-5379
ORCID for Veerle A.i. Huvenne: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-7135-6360
ORCID for Rachael H. James: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-7402-2315
ORCID for Timothy G. Leighton: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1649-8750
ORCID for Jianghui Li: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2956-5940
ORCID for Paul White: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4787-8713

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 29 Jan 2021 17:33
Last modified: 15 Jun 2021 01:51

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Contributors

Author: Anita Flohr ORCID iD
Author: Allison Schaap
Author: Guttorm Alendal
Author: Martin Arundell
Author: Christian Berndt
Author: Jerry Blackford
Author: Christoph Böttner
Author: Sergey M. Borisov
Author: Robin Brown
Author: Liam Carter
Author: Baixin Chen
Author: Andrew W. Dale
Author: Dirk De Beer
Author: Marcella Dean
Author: Christian Deusner
Author: Marius Dewar
Author: Jennifer M. Durden
Author: Saskia Elsen
Author: Mario Esposito
Author: Michael Faggetter
Author: Jan P. Fischer
Author: Amine Gana
Author: Jonas Gros
Author: Matthias Haeckel
Author: Rudolf Hanz
Author: Moritz Holtappels
Author: Brett Hosking
Author: Veerle A.i. Huvenne ORCID iD
Author: Dirk Koopmans
Author: Elke Kossel
Author: Jianghui Li ORCID iD
Author: Anna Lichtschlag
Author: Peter Linke
Author: Socratis Loucaides
Author: María Martínez-cabanas
Author: Juerg M. Matter
Author: Thomas Mesher
Author: Samuel Monk
Author: Matthew Mowlem
Author: Anna Oleynik
Author: Stathys Papadimitriou
Author: David Paxton
Author: Christopher R. Pearce
Author: Kate Peel
Author: Ben Roche
Author: Henry A. Ruhl
Author: Umer Saleem
Author: Carla Sands
Author: Kevin Saw
Author: Mark Schmidt
Author: Stefan Sommer
Author: James A. Strong
Author: Jack Triest
Author: Birgit Ungerböck
Author: John Walk
Author: Paul White ORCID iD
Author: Steve Widdicombe
Author: Robert Euan Wilson
Author: Hannah Wright
Author: James Wyatt
Author: Douglas Connelly

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