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Prenatal and postpartum maternal iodide intake from diet and supplements, urinary iodine and thyroid hormone concentrations in a region of the United Kingdom with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency

Prenatal and postpartum maternal iodide intake from diet and supplements, urinary iodine and thyroid hormone concentrations in a region of the United Kingdom with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency
Prenatal and postpartum maternal iodide intake from diet and supplements, urinary iodine and thyroid hormone concentrations in a region of the United Kingdom with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency
Iodine is essential for normal thyroid function, supporting healthy fetal and child development. Iodine requirements increase in pregnancy, but many women in regions without salt iodization have insufficient intakes. We explored associations between iodide intake and urinary iodine concentration (UIC), urinary iodine/creatinine ratio (I/Cr), thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine and palpable goiter in a region of mild-to-moderate iodine insufficiency. A total of 246 pregnant women aged 18–40 in Bradford, UK, joined the Health and Iodine in Babies (Hiba) study. They provided detailed information on diet and supplement use, urine and serum samples and were assessed for goiter at around 12, 26 and 36 weeks’ gestation, and 6, 18 and 30 weeks postpartum. Dietary iodide intake from food and drink was estimated using six 24 h recalls. During pregnancy, median (IQR) dietary iodide intake was 101 µg/day (54, 142), with 42% from dairy and 9% from white fish. Including supplements, intake was 143 µg/day (94, 196), with 49% < UK reference nutrient intake (140 µg/day). Women with Pakistani heritage had 129 µg/day (87, 190) median total intake. Total intake during pregnancy was associated with 4% (95% CI: 1%, 7%) higher UIC, 5% (3%, 7%) higher I/Cr, 4% (2%, 6%) lower thyroglobulin and 21% (9%, 32%) lower odds of palpable goiter per 50 µg/day. This cohort consumed less iodide in pregnancy than UK and World Health Organization dietary recommendations. UIC, I/Cr and thyroglobulin were associated with intake. Higher intake was associated with fewer goiters. Because dairy was the dominant source of iodide, women following plant-based or low-dairy diets may be at particular risk of iodine insufficiency
Cohort, Diet, Iodine, Pregnancy, Thyroid
2072-6643
1-16
Threapleton, Diane E.
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Waiblinger, Dagmar
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Snart, Charles J.p.
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Taylor, Elizabeth
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Keeble, Claire
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Ashraf, Samina
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Bi, Shazia
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Ajjan, Ramzi
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Azad, Rafaq
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Hancock, Neil
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Mason, Dan
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Reid, Stephen
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Cromie, Kirsten J.
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Alwan, Nisreen A.
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Zimmermann, Michael
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Stewart, Paul M.
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Simpson, Nigel A.b.
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Wright, John
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Cade, Janet E.
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Hardie, Laura J.
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Greenwood, Darren C.
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Threapleton, Diane E.
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Waiblinger, Dagmar
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Snart, Charles J.p.
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Taylor, Elizabeth
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Keeble, Claire
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Ashraf, Samina
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Bi, Shazia
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Ajjan, Ramzi
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Azad, Rafaq
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Hancock, Neil
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Mason, Dan
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Reid, Stephen
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Cromie, Kirsten J.
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Alwan, Nisreen A.
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Zimmermann, Michael
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Stewart, Paul M.
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Simpson, Nigel A.b.
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Wright, John
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Cade, Janet E.
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Hardie, Laura J.
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Greenwood, Darren C.
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Threapleton, Diane E., Waiblinger, Dagmar, Snart, Charles J.p., Taylor, Elizabeth, Keeble, Claire, Ashraf, Samina, Bi, Shazia, Ajjan, Ramzi, Azad, Rafaq, Hancock, Neil, Mason, Dan, Reid, Stephen, Cromie, Kirsten J., Alwan, Nisreen A., Zimmermann, Michael, Stewart, Paul M., Simpson, Nigel A.b., Wright, John, Cade, Janet E., Hardie, Laura J. and Greenwood, Darren C. (2021) Prenatal and postpartum maternal iodide intake from diet and supplements, urinary iodine and thyroid hormone concentrations in a region of the United Kingdom with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Nutrients, 13 (1), 1-16, [230]. (doi:10.3390/nu13010230).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Iodine is essential for normal thyroid function, supporting healthy fetal and child development. Iodine requirements increase in pregnancy, but many women in regions without salt iodization have insufficient intakes. We explored associations between iodide intake and urinary iodine concentration (UIC), urinary iodine/creatinine ratio (I/Cr), thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine and palpable goiter in a region of mild-to-moderate iodine insufficiency. A total of 246 pregnant women aged 18–40 in Bradford, UK, joined the Health and Iodine in Babies (Hiba) study. They provided detailed information on diet and supplement use, urine and serum samples and were assessed for goiter at around 12, 26 and 36 weeks’ gestation, and 6, 18 and 30 weeks postpartum. Dietary iodide intake from food and drink was estimated using six 24 h recalls. During pregnancy, median (IQR) dietary iodide intake was 101 µg/day (54, 142), with 42% from dairy and 9% from white fish. Including supplements, intake was 143 µg/day (94, 196), with 49% < UK reference nutrient intake (140 µg/day). Women with Pakistani heritage had 129 µg/day (87, 190) median total intake. Total intake during pregnancy was associated with 4% (95% CI: 1%, 7%) higher UIC, 5% (3%, 7%) higher I/Cr, 4% (2%, 6%) lower thyroglobulin and 21% (9%, 32%) lower odds of palpable goiter per 50 µg/day. This cohort consumed less iodide in pregnancy than UK and World Health Organization dietary recommendations. UIC, I/Cr and thyroglobulin were associated with intake. Higher intake was associated with fewer goiters. Because dairy was the dominant source of iodide, women following plant-based or low-dairy diets may be at particular risk of iodine insufficiency

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Accepted/In Press date: 12 January 2021
e-pub ahead of print date: 14 January 2021
Published date: 14 January 2021
Keywords: Cohort, Diet, Iodine, Pregnancy, Thyroid

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 446708
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/446708
ISSN: 2072-6643
PURE UUID: 13555f2a-f694-4b9d-902c-d5186fc8a9e1
ORCID for Nisreen A. Alwan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4134-8463

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 18 Feb 2021 17:31
Last modified: 10 Jan 2022 03:04

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Contributors

Author: Diane E. Threapleton
Author: Dagmar Waiblinger
Author: Charles J.p. Snart
Author: Elizabeth Taylor
Author: Claire Keeble
Author: Samina Ashraf
Author: Shazia Bi
Author: Ramzi Ajjan
Author: Rafaq Azad
Author: Neil Hancock
Author: Dan Mason
Author: Stephen Reid
Author: Kirsten J. Cromie
Author: Michael Zimmermann
Author: Paul M. Stewart
Author: Nigel A.b. Simpson
Author: John Wright
Author: Janet E. Cade
Author: Laura J. Hardie
Author: Darren C. Greenwood

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