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Nuclear molecular outflow in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3227

Nuclear molecular outflow in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3227
Nuclear molecular outflow in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3227
ALMA observations have revealed nuclear dusty molecular disks or tori with characteristic sizes 15-40 pc in the few Seyferts and low -luminosity AGN that have been studied so far. These structures are generally decoupled both morphologically and kinematically from the host galaxy disk. We present ALMA observations of the CO(2-1) and CO(3-2) molecular gas transitions and associated (sub-) millimeter continua of the nearby Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 3227 with angular resolutions 0.085 - 0.21″ (7-15 pc). On large scales, the cold molecular gas shows circular motions as well as streaming motions on scales of a few hundred parsecs that are associated with a large-scale bar. We fit the nuclear ALMA 1.3 mm emission with an unresolved component and an extended component. The 850 μm emission shows at least two extended components, one along the major axis of the nuclear disk, and the other along the axis of the ionization cone. The molecular gas in the central region (1″ ∼ 73 pc) shows several CO clumps with complex kinematics that appears to be dominated by noncircular motions. While we cannot conclusively demonstrate the presence of a warped nuclear disk, we also detected noncircular motions along the kinematic minor axis. They reach line-of-sight velocities of v - vsys = 150 - 200 km s-1. Assuming that the radial motions are in the plane of the galaxy, we interpret them as a nuclear molecular outflow due to molecular gas in the host galaxy that is entrained by the AGN wind. We derive molecular outflow rates of 5 M yr-1 and 0.6 M yr-1 at projected distances of up to 30 pc to the northeast and southwest of the AGN, respectively. At the AGN location we estimate a mass in molecular gas of 5 × 105 M and an equivalent average column density N(H2) = 2 - 3 × 1023 cm-2 in the inner 15 pc. The nuclear CO(2-1) and CO(3-2) molecular gas and submillimeter continuum emission of NGC 3227 do not resemble the classical compact torus. Rather, these emissions extend for several tens of parsecs and appear connected with the circumnuclear ring in the host galaxy disk, as found in other local AGN.
0004-6361
Alonso-Herrero, A.
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García-Burillo, S.
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Pereira-Santaella, M.
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Combes, F.
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Vestergaard, M.
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Raimundo, S.I.
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Bunker, A.
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Díaz-Santos, T.
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Gandhi, P.
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García-Bernete, I.
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Hicks, E.K.S.
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Hönig, S.F.
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Hunt, L.K.
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Imanishi, M.
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Izumi, T.
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Levenson, N.A.
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Maciejewski, W.
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Packham, C.
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Ramos Almeida, C.
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Ricci, C.
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Rigopoulou, D.
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Rosario, D.
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Schartmann, M.
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Usero, A.
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Davies, R.I.
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Roche, P.F.
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Ward, M.J.
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Alonso-Herrero, A.
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García-Burillo, S.
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Pereira-Santaella, M.
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Combes, F.
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Vestergaard, M.
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Raimundo, S.I.
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Bunker, A.
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Díaz-Santos, T.
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Gandhi, P.
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García-Bernete, I.
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Hicks, E.K.S.
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Hönig, S.F.
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Hunt, L.K.
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Imanishi, M.
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Izumi, T.
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Levenson, N.A.
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Maciejewski, W.
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Packham, C.
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Ramos Almeida, C.
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Ricci, C.
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Rigopoulou, D.
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Rosario, D.
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Schartmann, M.
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Usero, A.
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Davies, R.I.
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Roche, P.F.
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Ward, M.J.
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Alonso-Herrero, A., García-Burillo, S., Pereira-Santaella, M., Combes, F., Vestergaard, M., Raimundo, S.I., Bunker, A., Díaz-Santos, T., Gandhi, P., García-Bernete, I., Hicks, E.K.S., Hönig, S.F., Hunt, L.K., Imanishi, M., Izumi, T., Levenson, N.A., Maciejewski, W., Packham, C., Ramos Almeida, C., Ricci, C., Rigopoulou, D., Rosario, D., Schartmann, M., Usero, A., Davies, R.I., Roche, P.F. and Ward, M.J. (2019) Nuclear molecular outflow in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3227. Astronomy and Astrophysics. (doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201935431).

Record type: Article

Abstract

ALMA observations have revealed nuclear dusty molecular disks or tori with characteristic sizes 15-40 pc in the few Seyferts and low -luminosity AGN that have been studied so far. These structures are generally decoupled both morphologically and kinematically from the host galaxy disk. We present ALMA observations of the CO(2-1) and CO(3-2) molecular gas transitions and associated (sub-) millimeter continua of the nearby Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 3227 with angular resolutions 0.085 - 0.21″ (7-15 pc). On large scales, the cold molecular gas shows circular motions as well as streaming motions on scales of a few hundred parsecs that are associated with a large-scale bar. We fit the nuclear ALMA 1.3 mm emission with an unresolved component and an extended component. The 850 μm emission shows at least two extended components, one along the major axis of the nuclear disk, and the other along the axis of the ionization cone. The molecular gas in the central region (1″ ∼ 73 pc) shows several CO clumps with complex kinematics that appears to be dominated by noncircular motions. While we cannot conclusively demonstrate the presence of a warped nuclear disk, we also detected noncircular motions along the kinematic minor axis. They reach line-of-sight velocities of v - vsys = 150 - 200 km s-1. Assuming that the radial motions are in the plane of the galaxy, we interpret them as a nuclear molecular outflow due to molecular gas in the host galaxy that is entrained by the AGN wind. We derive molecular outflow rates of 5 M yr-1 and 0.6 M yr-1 at projected distances of up to 30 pc to the northeast and southwest of the AGN, respectively. At the AGN location we estimate a mass in molecular gas of 5 × 105 M and an equivalent average column density N(H2) = 2 - 3 × 1023 cm-2 in the inner 15 pc. The nuclear CO(2-1) and CO(3-2) molecular gas and submillimeter continuum emission of NGC 3227 do not resemble the classical compact torus. Rather, these emissions extend for several tens of parsecs and appear connected with the circumnuclear ring in the host galaxy disk, as found in other local AGN.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 12 June 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 8 August 2019
Published date: August 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 446828
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/446828
ISSN: 0004-6361
PURE UUID: ca572fbc-dd26-4373-8a69-8132c1b4659f
ORCID for P. Gandhi: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3105-2615

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 24 Feb 2021 17:30
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 03:03

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Contributors

Author: A. Alonso-Herrero
Author: S. García-Burillo
Author: M. Pereira-Santaella
Author: F. Combes
Author: M. Vestergaard
Author: S.I. Raimundo
Author: A. Bunker
Author: T. Díaz-Santos
Author: P. Gandhi ORCID iD
Author: I. García-Bernete
Author: E.K.S. Hicks
Author: S.F. Hönig
Author: L.K. Hunt
Author: M. Imanishi
Author: T. Izumi
Author: N.A. Levenson
Author: W. Maciejewski
Author: C. Packham
Author: C. Ramos Almeida
Author: C. Ricci
Author: D. Rigopoulou
Author: D. Rosario
Author: M. Schartmann
Author: A. Usero
Author: R.I. Davies
Author: P.F. Roche
Author: M.J. Ward

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