The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Measures of space-time non-separability of electromagnetic pulses

Measures of space-time non-separability of electromagnetic pulses
Measures of space-time non-separability of electromagnetic pulses
Electromagnetic pulses are typically treated as space-time (or space-frequency) separable solutions of Maxwell’s equations, where spatial and temporal (spectral) dependence can be treated separately. In contrast to this traditional viewpoint, recent advances in structured light and topological optics have highlighted the non-trivial wave-matter interactions of pulses with complex space-time non-separable structure, as well as their potential for energy and information transfer. A characteristic example of such a pulse is the “Flying Doughnut” (FD), a space-time non-separable few-cycle pulse with links to toroidal and non radiating (anapole) excitations in matter. Here, we propose a quantum mechanics-inspired methodology for quantitatively characterizing space-time non-separability in structured pulses. In analogy to the mathematics of non-separability in quantum mechanics, we introduce the concept of space-spectrum non-separable states to describe the spacetime non-separability of a classical electromagnetic pulse and apply state tomography method to reconstruct the corresponding density matrix. Using the example of FD pulse, we calculate the fidelity, concurrence, and entanglement of formation as their quantitative measures, and we demonstrate such properties dug out from quantum mechanics can quantitatively characterize the spatiotemporal evolution of general structured pulses. Our results highlight the potential of space-time non-separable pulses as information carriers and facilitate their deployment in information transfer and cryptography applications.
2643-1564
Shen, Yijie
42410cf7-8adb-4de6-9175-a1332245c368
Zdagkas, Apostolos
af3bc86e-b049-4ea1-b7bb-44e2ee0a4441
Papasimakis, Nikitas
f416bfa9-544c-4a3e-8a2d-bc1c11133a51
Zheludev, Nikolai
32fb6af7-97e4-4d11-bca6-805745e40cc6
Shen, Yijie
42410cf7-8adb-4de6-9175-a1332245c368
Zdagkas, Apostolos
af3bc86e-b049-4ea1-b7bb-44e2ee0a4441
Papasimakis, Nikitas
f416bfa9-544c-4a3e-8a2d-bc1c11133a51
Zheludev, Nikolai
32fb6af7-97e4-4d11-bca6-805745e40cc6

Shen, Yijie, Zdagkas, Apostolos, Papasimakis, Nikitas and Zheludev, Nikolai (2021) Measures of space-time non-separability of electromagnetic pulses. Physical Review Research. (In Press)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Electromagnetic pulses are typically treated as space-time (or space-frequency) separable solutions of Maxwell’s equations, where spatial and temporal (spectral) dependence can be treated separately. In contrast to this traditional viewpoint, recent advances in structured light and topological optics have highlighted the non-trivial wave-matter interactions of pulses with complex space-time non-separable structure, as well as their potential for energy and information transfer. A characteristic example of such a pulse is the “Flying Doughnut” (FD), a space-time non-separable few-cycle pulse with links to toroidal and non radiating (anapole) excitations in matter. Here, we propose a quantum mechanics-inspired methodology for quantitatively characterizing space-time non-separability in structured pulses. In analogy to the mathematics of non-separability in quantum mechanics, we introduce the concept of space-spectrum non-separable states to describe the spacetime non-separability of a classical electromagnetic pulse and apply state tomography method to reconstruct the corresponding density matrix. Using the example of FD pulse, we calculate the fidelity, concurrence, and entanglement of formation as their quantitative measures, and we demonstrate such properties dug out from quantum mechanics can quantitatively characterize the spatiotemporal evolution of general structured pulses. Our results highlight the potential of space-time non-separable pulses as information carriers and facilitate their deployment in information transfer and cryptography applications.

Text
mainVf - Accepted Manuscript
Restricted to Repository staff only
Request a copy

More information

Accepted/In Press date: 21 January 2021

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 446913
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/446913
ISSN: 2643-1564
PURE UUID: 67467f4b-bdf6-4b1c-ba93-8082df6d7f0b
ORCID for Apostolos Zdagkas: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1734-9722
ORCID for Nikitas Papasimakis: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6347-6466
ORCID for Nikolai Zheludev: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1013-6636

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 26 Feb 2021 17:31
Last modified: 23 Mar 2021 03:02

Export record

Contributors

Author: Yijie Shen
Author: Apostolos Zdagkas ORCID iD

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton: eprints@soton.ac.uk

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/cgi/oai2

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.

×