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A review of the functional effects of pine nut oil, pinolenic acid and its derivative eicosatrienoic acid and their potential health benefits

A review of the functional effects of pine nut oil, pinolenic acid and its derivative eicosatrienoic acid and their potential health benefits
A review of the functional effects of pine nut oil, pinolenic acid and its derivative eicosatrienoic acid and their potential health benefits
Pine nut oil (PNO) is rich in a variety of unusual delta‐5‐non‐methylene‐interrupted fatty acids 2   (NMIFAs), including pinolenic acid (PLA; all cis‐5,‐9,‐12 18:3) which typically comprises 14 to 19% of  total fatty acids. PLA has been shown to be metabolised to eicosatrienoic acid (ETA; all cis‐7,‐11,‐14 4 20:3) in various cells and tissues. Here we review the literature on PNO, PLA and its metabolite ETA in the context of human health applications. PNO and PLA have a range of favourable effects on body weight as well as fat deposition through increased energy expenditure (fatty acid oxidation) and decreased food energy intake (reduced appetite). PNO and PLA improve blood and hepatic lipids in animal models and insulin sensitivity in vitro and reduce inflammation and modulate immune function in vitro and in animal models. The few studies which have examined effects of ETA indicate it has antiinflammatory properties. Another NMIFA from PNO, sciadonic acid (all cis‐5,‐11,‐14 20:3), has generally similar properties to PLA where these have been investigated. There is potential for human health benefits from PNO, its constituent NMIFA PLA and the PLA derivative ETA. However further studies are needed to explore the effects in humans.


Eicosatrienoic acid, Human health, Pine nut oil, Pinolenic acid
0163-7827
Baker, Ella
7cd5b762-d7d7-4584-b9a7-dba555085440
Miles, Elizabeth
20332899-ecdb-4214-95bc-922dde36d416
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6
Baker, Ella
7cd5b762-d7d7-4584-b9a7-dba555085440
Miles, Elizabeth
20332899-ecdb-4214-95bc-922dde36d416
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6

Baker, Ella, Miles, Elizabeth and Calder, Philip (2021) A review of the functional effects of pine nut oil, pinolenic acid and its derivative eicosatrienoic acid and their potential health benefits. Progress in Lipid Research, 82, [101097]. (doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2021.101097). (In Press)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Pine nut oil (PNO) is rich in a variety of unusual delta‐5‐non‐methylene‐interrupted fatty acids 2   (NMIFAs), including pinolenic acid (PLA; all cis‐5,‐9,‐12 18:3) which typically comprises 14 to 19% of  total fatty acids. PLA has been shown to be metabolised to eicosatrienoic acid (ETA; all cis‐7,‐11,‐14 4 20:3) in various cells and tissues. Here we review the literature on PNO, PLA and its metabolite ETA in the context of human health applications. PNO and PLA have a range of favourable effects on body weight as well as fat deposition through increased energy expenditure (fatty acid oxidation) and decreased food energy intake (reduced appetite). PNO and PLA improve blood and hepatic lipids in animal models and insulin sensitivity in vitro and reduce inflammation and modulate immune function in vitro and in animal models. The few studies which have examined effects of ETA indicate it has antiinflammatory properties. Another NMIFA from PNO, sciadonic acid (all cis‐5,‐11,‐14 20:3), has generally similar properties to PLA where these have been investigated. There is potential for human health benefits from PNO, its constituent NMIFA PLA and the PLA derivative ETA. However further studies are needed to explore the effects in humans.


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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 24 February 2021
Additional Information: NIHR So'ton BRC affiliated, Philip Calder
Keywords: Eicosatrienoic acid, Human health, Pine nut oil, Pinolenic acid

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 447319
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/447319
ISSN: 0163-7827
PURE UUID: 0c05c9a4-3ec8-413d-90eb-e4e4154e1fed
ORCID for Elizabeth Miles: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-8643-0655
ORCID for Philip Calder: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6038-710X

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 09 Mar 2021 17:31
Last modified: 24 Nov 2021 02:34

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Contributors

Author: Ella Baker
Author: Elizabeth Miles ORCID iD
Author: Philip Calder ORCID iD

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