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Quantifying the effects of vibration on medicines in transit caused by fixed-wing and multi-copter drones

Quantifying the effects of vibration on medicines in transit caused by fixed-wing and multi-copter drones
Quantifying the effects of vibration on medicines in transit caused by fixed-wing and multi-copter drones
The concept of transporting medical products by drone is gaining a lot of interest amongst the medical and logistics communities. Such innovation has generated several questions, a key one being the potential effects of flight on the stability of medical products. The aims of this study were to quantify the vibration present within drone flight, study its effect on the quality of the medical insulin through live flight trials, and compare the effects of vibration from drone flight with traditional road transport. Three trials took place in which insulin ampoules and mock blood stocks were transported to site and flown using industry standard packaging by a fixed-wing or a multi-copter drone. Triaxial vibration measurements were acquired, both in-flight and during road transit, from which overall levels and frequency spectra were derived. British Pharmacopeia quality tests were undertaken in which the UV spectra of the flown insulin samples were compared to controls of known turbidity. In-flight vibration levels in both the drone types exceeded road induced levels by up to a factor of three, and predominant vibration occurred at significantly higher frequencies. Flown samples gave clear insulin solutions that met the British Pharmacopoeia specification, and no aggregation of insulin was detected.
UAV, blood, dangerous goods, drone, healthcare, insulin, logistics, medicine, vibration
2504-446X
Oakey, Andrew
dfd6e317-1e6d-429c-a3e0-bc80e92787d1
Waters, Tim
348d22f5-dba1-4384-87ac-04fe5d603c2f
Zhu, Wanqing
011a289f-9f22-4743-af1c-68d7d7074d16
Royall, Paul G.
0c9ccd6d-5fa8-4faf-ad06-1a912282963c
Cherrett, Tom
e5929951-e97c-4720-96a8-3e586f2d5f95
Courtney, Patrick
e33b5155-8622-4158-be38-1c5595646520
Majoe, Dennis
db2612c0-6d1f-4766-90a9-3a7a5f267fea
Jelev, Nickolay
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Oakey, Andrew
dfd6e317-1e6d-429c-a3e0-bc80e92787d1
Waters, Tim
348d22f5-dba1-4384-87ac-04fe5d603c2f
Zhu, Wanqing
011a289f-9f22-4743-af1c-68d7d7074d16
Royall, Paul G.
0c9ccd6d-5fa8-4faf-ad06-1a912282963c
Cherrett, Tom
e5929951-e97c-4720-96a8-3e586f2d5f95
Courtney, Patrick
e33b5155-8622-4158-be38-1c5595646520
Majoe, Dennis
db2612c0-6d1f-4766-90a9-3a7a5f267fea
Jelev, Nickolay
5556e79d-752b-4e2a-b5c8-7f6773b6aeb1

Oakey, Andrew, Waters, Tim, Zhu, Wanqing, Royall, Paul G., Cherrett, Tom, Courtney, Patrick, Majoe, Dennis and Jelev, Nickolay (2021) Quantifying the effects of vibration on medicines in transit caused by fixed-wing and multi-copter drones. Drones, 5 (1), [22]. (doi:10.3390/drones5010022).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The concept of transporting medical products by drone is gaining a lot of interest amongst the medical and logistics communities. Such innovation has generated several questions, a key one being the potential effects of flight on the stability of medical products. The aims of this study were to quantify the vibration present within drone flight, study its effect on the quality of the medical insulin through live flight trials, and compare the effects of vibration from drone flight with traditional road transport. Three trials took place in which insulin ampoules and mock blood stocks were transported to site and flown using industry standard packaging by a fixed-wing or a multi-copter drone. Triaxial vibration measurements were acquired, both in-flight and during road transit, from which overall levels and frequency spectra were derived. British Pharmacopeia quality tests were undertaken in which the UV spectra of the flown insulin samples were compared to controls of known turbidity. In-flight vibration levels in both the drone types exceeded road induced levels by up to a factor of three, and predominant vibration occurred at significantly higher frequencies. Flown samples gave clear insulin solutions that met the British Pharmacopoeia specification, and no aggregation of insulin was detected.

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drones-05-00022-v2 - Version of Record
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Accepted/In Press date: 11 March 2021
Published date: 13 March 2021
Additional Information: Funding Information: this research received funding from the EPSRC and was completed as part of the e-Drone project under grant no. EP/V002619/1.
Keywords: UAV, blood, dangerous goods, drone, healthcare, insulin, logistics, medicine, vibration

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 447841
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/447841
ISSN: 2504-446X
PURE UUID: 082ea3be-46c5-4a01-b23c-f1d9c4cfb5e9
ORCID for Andrew Oakey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-1796-5485
ORCID for Tom Cherrett: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-0394-5459

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 24 Mar 2021 17:34
Last modified: 12 Jun 2024 02:04

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Contributors

Author: Andrew Oakey ORCID iD
Author: Tim Waters
Author: Wanqing Zhu
Author: Paul G. Royall
Author: Tom Cherrett ORCID iD
Author: Patrick Courtney
Author: Dennis Majoe
Author: Nickolay Jelev

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