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Neonatal amygdala microstructure mediates the relationship between gestational glycemia and offspring adiposity.

Neonatal amygdala microstructure mediates the relationship between gestational glycemia and offspring adiposity.
Neonatal amygdala microstructure mediates the relationship between gestational glycemia and offspring adiposity.

Introduction To determine if variations in the neonatal amygdala mediate the association between maternal antenatal glycemia and offspring adiposity in early childhood. Research design and methods 123 non-obese pregnant women with no pregnancy complications aside from gestational diabetes underwent a 75 g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test at 26-28 weeks' gestation. Volume and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the neonatal amygdala (5-17 days old) were measured by MRI. The Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores and sum of skinfold thickness (subscapular and triceps) of these children were tracked up to 60 months of age (18, 24, 36, 48, 54 and 60 months). Results Maternal fasting glucose levels were positively associated with the offspring's sum of skinfold thickness at age 48 months (β=3.12, 95% CI 0.18 to 6.06 mm) and 60 months (β=4.14, 95% CI 0.46 to 7.82 mm) and BMI z-scores at 48 months (β=0.94, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.85), 54 months (β=0.74, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.36) and 60 months (β=0.74, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.39). Maternal fasting glucose was negatively associated with the offspring's FA of the right amygdala (β=-0.019, 95% CI -0.036 to -0.003). Right amygdala FA was negatively associated with the sum of skinfold thickness in the offspring at age 48 months (β=-56.95, 95% CI -98.43 to -15.47 mm), 54 months (β=-46.18, 95% CI -88.57 to -3.78 mm), and 60 months (β=-53.69, 95% CI -105.74 to -1.64 mm). The effect sizes mediated by right amygdala FA between fasting glucose and sum of skinfolds were estimated at β=5.14 (95% CI 0.74 to 9.53) mm (p=0.022), β=4.40 (95% CI 0.08 to 8.72) (p=0.049) mm and β=4.56 (95% CI -0.17 to 9.29) mm (p=0.059) at 48, 54 and 60 months, respectively. Conclusions In the offspring of non-obese mothers, gestational fasting glucose concentration is negatively associated with neonatal right amygdala FA and positively associated with childhood adiposity. Neonatal right amygdala FA may be a potential mediator between maternal glycemia and childhood adiposity.

brain, diabetes, gestational, growth
2044-6055
Cai, Shirong
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Aris, Izzuddin M.
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Yuan, Wen Lun
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Tan, Kok Hian
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Godfrey, Keith
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Gluckman, Peter D.
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Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi
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Chong, Yap-Seng
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Yap, Fabian
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Fortier, Marielle V.
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Meaney, Michael J.
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Lee, Yung Seng
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Qiu, Anqi
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Cai, Shirong
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Aris, Izzuddin M.
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Yuan, Wen Lun
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Tan, Kok Hian
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Godfrey, Keith
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Gluckman, Peter D.
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Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi
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Chong, Yap-Seng
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Yap, Fabian
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Fortier, Marielle V.
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Meaney, Michael J.
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Lee, Yung Seng
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Qiu, Anqi
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Cai, Shirong, Aris, Izzuddin M., Yuan, Wen Lun, Tan, Kok Hian, Godfrey, Keith, Gluckman, Peter D., Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi, Chong, Yap-Seng, Yap, Fabian, Fortier, Marielle V., Meaney, Michael J., Lee, Yung Seng and Qiu, Anqi (2021) Neonatal amygdala microstructure mediates the relationship between gestational glycemia and offspring adiposity. BMJ Open, 9 (1), [1396]. (doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001396).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Introduction To determine if variations in the neonatal amygdala mediate the association between maternal antenatal glycemia and offspring adiposity in early childhood. Research design and methods 123 non-obese pregnant women with no pregnancy complications aside from gestational diabetes underwent a 75 g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test at 26-28 weeks' gestation. Volume and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the neonatal amygdala (5-17 days old) were measured by MRI. The Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores and sum of skinfold thickness (subscapular and triceps) of these children were tracked up to 60 months of age (18, 24, 36, 48, 54 and 60 months). Results Maternal fasting glucose levels were positively associated with the offspring's sum of skinfold thickness at age 48 months (β=3.12, 95% CI 0.18 to 6.06 mm) and 60 months (β=4.14, 95% CI 0.46 to 7.82 mm) and BMI z-scores at 48 months (β=0.94, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.85), 54 months (β=0.74, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.36) and 60 months (β=0.74, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.39). Maternal fasting glucose was negatively associated with the offspring's FA of the right amygdala (β=-0.019, 95% CI -0.036 to -0.003). Right amygdala FA was negatively associated with the sum of skinfold thickness in the offspring at age 48 months (β=-56.95, 95% CI -98.43 to -15.47 mm), 54 months (β=-46.18, 95% CI -88.57 to -3.78 mm), and 60 months (β=-53.69, 95% CI -105.74 to -1.64 mm). The effect sizes mediated by right amygdala FA between fasting glucose and sum of skinfolds were estimated at β=5.14 (95% CI 0.74 to 9.53) mm (p=0.022), β=4.40 (95% CI 0.08 to 8.72) (p=0.049) mm and β=4.56 (95% CI -0.17 to 9.29) mm (p=0.059) at 48, 54 and 60 months, respectively. Conclusions In the offspring of non-obese mothers, gestational fasting glucose concentration is negatively associated with neonatal right amygdala FA and positively associated with childhood adiposity. Neonatal right amygdala FA may be a potential mediator between maternal glycemia and childhood adiposity.

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Accepted/In Press date: 3 April 2021
Published date: 22 April 2021
Keywords: brain, diabetes, gestational, growth

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Local EPrints ID: 448235
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/448235
ISSN: 2044-6055
PURE UUID: 9eecaa61-db56-4aad-ab4d-5b3aa4cfbc2e
ORCID for Keith Godfrey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4643-0618

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Date deposited: 15 Apr 2021 16:34
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 02:35

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Contributors

Author: Shirong Cai
Author: Izzuddin M. Aris
Author: Wen Lun Yuan
Author: Kok Hian Tan
Author: Keith Godfrey ORCID iD
Author: Peter D. Gluckman
Author: Lynette Pei-Chi Shek
Author: Yap-Seng Chong
Author: Fabian Yap
Author: Marielle V. Fortier
Author: Michael J. Meaney
Author: Yung Seng Lee
Author: Anqi Qiu

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