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Design, imaging and performance of 3D printed open-cell architectures for porous electrodes: quantification of surface area and permeability

Design, imaging and performance of 3D printed open-cell architectures for porous electrodes: quantification of surface area and permeability
Design, imaging and performance of 3D printed open-cell architectures for porous electrodes: quantification of surface area and permeability
Background: the development of new open-cell porous electrodes for electrochemical flow cells and reactors is demonstrated through the application of 3D printing. The properties of diverse architectures were investigated, including rectangular, circular, hexagonal and triangular cells with linear porosity grades of 10, 20 and 30 pores per inch. Specimens were digitally designed, then 3D printed in stainless steel via selective laser melting. After being examined using scanning electron microscopy, they were characterised in terms of volumetric surface area and porosity with the aid of X-ray computed tomography. Pressure drop measurements were performed over a range of mean linear velocity and Reynolds number, allowing the estimation of Darcy’s friction factor and permeability.

Results: volumetric surface area estimated from tomography scans was up to 36% higher than the nominal values due to surface roughness and post-processing algorithms. In contrast, volumetric porosity obtained by tomography agreed fully with measured values. Triangular architectures afforded additional surface area both digitally and according to tomography. The largest pressure drop was found in circular materials, the triangular ones showing the lowest. The 20 ppi triangular architecture had a volumetric surface area of approximately 44.5 cm-1 and a permeability of 2.31 × 10-5 cm2.

Conclusion: triangular architectures were preferred due to their favourable combination of high surface area and high permeability with low mass and reduced digital complexity. This provides a strategy to initiate the optimization of 3D printed porous electrodes for electrochemical flow cells and reactors in novel and niche applications.
additive manufacturing, electrode design, periodic cell, x-ray computed tomography
0268-2575
1818 - 1831
Kaishubayeva, Nazira
c740ff08-61aa-4519-8586-5ce97a975cac
Ponce De Leon Albarran, Carlos
508a312e-75ff-4bcb-9151-dacc424d755c
Walsh, Frank
309528e7-062e-439b-af40-9309bc91efb2
Arenas Martinez, Luis Fernando
6e7e3d10-2aab-4fc3-a6d4-63a6614d0403
Kaishubayeva, Nazira
c740ff08-61aa-4519-8586-5ce97a975cac
Ponce De Leon Albarran, Carlos
508a312e-75ff-4bcb-9151-dacc424d755c
Walsh, Frank
309528e7-062e-439b-af40-9309bc91efb2
Arenas Martinez, Luis Fernando
6e7e3d10-2aab-4fc3-a6d4-63a6614d0403

Kaishubayeva, Nazira, Ponce De Leon Albarran, Carlos, Walsh, Frank and Arenas Martinez, Luis Fernando (2021) Design, imaging and performance of 3D printed open-cell architectures for porous electrodes: quantification of surface area and permeability. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 96 (7), 1818 - 1831. (doi:10.1002/jctb.6754).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: the development of new open-cell porous electrodes for electrochemical flow cells and reactors is demonstrated through the application of 3D printing. The properties of diverse architectures were investigated, including rectangular, circular, hexagonal and triangular cells with linear porosity grades of 10, 20 and 30 pores per inch. Specimens were digitally designed, then 3D printed in stainless steel via selective laser melting. After being examined using scanning electron microscopy, they were characterised in terms of volumetric surface area and porosity with the aid of X-ray computed tomography. Pressure drop measurements were performed over a range of mean linear velocity and Reynolds number, allowing the estimation of Darcy’s friction factor and permeability.

Results: volumetric surface area estimated from tomography scans was up to 36% higher than the nominal values due to surface roughness and post-processing algorithms. In contrast, volumetric porosity obtained by tomography agreed fully with measured values. Triangular architectures afforded additional surface area both digitally and according to tomography. The largest pressure drop was found in circular materials, the triangular ones showing the lowest. The 20 ppi triangular architecture had a volumetric surface area of approximately 44.5 cm-1 and a permeability of 2.31 × 10-5 cm2.

Conclusion: triangular architectures were preferred due to their favourable combination of high surface area and high permeability with low mass and reduced digital complexity. This provides a strategy to initiate the optimization of 3D printed porous electrodes for electrochemical flow cells and reactors in novel and niche applications.

Text
jctb.6754 - Accepted Manuscript
Restricted to Repository staff only until 10 April 2022.
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Text
Design of 3D printed electrodes Kaishubayeva et al 27-03-21 FINAL PURE
Restricted to Repository staff only until 10 April 2022.
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 10 April 2021
Published date: July 2021
Keywords: additive manufacturing, electrode design, periodic cell, x-ray computed tomography

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 448425
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/448425
ISSN: 0268-2575
PURE UUID: ac8b6d45-c952-4808-8d70-e6819b6689c7
ORCID for Carlos Ponce De Leon Albarran: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1907-5913

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 22 Apr 2021 16:30
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 02:49

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Contributors

Author: Nazira Kaishubayeva
Author: Frank Walsh

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