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Data from: Human occupation and ecosystem change on Upolu (Samoa) during the Holocene

Data from: Human occupation and ecosystem change on Upolu (Samoa) during the Holocene
Data from: Human occupation and ecosystem change on Upolu (Samoa) during the Holocene
All data related to the palaeoecological investigation of Lake Lanoto'o (Upolu, Samoa) is provided in .xls and .c2 format. The data contained within the two files is identical, however, the .c2 file loads directly into the stratigraphic plotting program C2 (https://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/stephen.juggins/software/C2Home.htm) and contains the interactive versions of the figures presented in the associated manuscript. The datasets within the .xls file are organised into tabs based on the data type: Metadata - manuscript title, authors, and data location Lead210Dates - link to reference containing Lead210 chronological control data RadiocarbonDates - list of radiocarbon dates obtained from the study site Chronology - details of how the relationship between the depth and age of sediments was established TOC+CN - Total Organic Carbon and Carbon/Nitrogen datasets Magnetic - Magnetic susceptibility data Ti - Titanium data Microcharcoal - Charcoal fragments < 160 microns (identified on pollen slides) Macrocharcoal - Charcoal fragments > 160 microns PollenCounts - Pollen and spore data PollenPercentages - Pollen and spore data converted to percentage abundance relative to the terrestrial pollen sum MacroscopicRemains - Seed and fern sporangia data (identified in macrocharcoal samples) AlgalCounts - Algal and cyanobacterial data (identified on pollen slides) AlgalPercentage - Algal and cyanobacterial data converted to percentage abundance relative to the total abundance of algae and cyanobacteria,Aim To track the peopling of the South Pacific and assess their impact on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Location Upolu, Samoa. Taxon Ancient charcoal, pollen, sprores, algae and cyanobacteria types are recorded. Methods A sedimentary record covering the last c. 10,500 years was recovered from the volcanic crater that contains Lake Lanoto'o near the centre of Upolu Island. Information on past ecological change was obtained from microscopic and macroscopic remains extracted from the sediments: charcoal (fire history), pollen/spores and plant remains (vegetation history), and lake status (algae/cyanobacteria). Information on the depositional environment and climate was obtained from geochemical and sedimentary analysis: loss‐on‐ignition (sediment composition), cryptotephras (volcanic eruptions) and precipitation regime (Ti/inc). The environmental history developed was compared with the archaeological record from the region. Results Charcoal material was found in the Lake Lanoto'o sediments at higher abundances and more frequently in samples from the period after the first archaeological evidence of people on Upolu (c. 2900–2700 years ago). No abrupt shift is recognized in the vegetation or aquatic ecosystem assemblages coincident with the arrival of people on the island. Main conclusions Macrocharcoal is demonstrated to be an effective proxy for detecting human occupation of Upolu around 2,800 years ago. The immediate impact of these settlers on the vegetation seems to have been minimal; however, a subsequent opening up of the landscape is suggested through the gradual increase in ferns. The absence of any significant change in the aquatic community associated with, or after, the arrival of people on the islands suggests that humans rarely visited the lake. We suggest that on Upolu a simple model of decreasing human impact away from coastal areas is applicable.,The timing and ecological impact of the peopling of the South Pacific island of Upolu (Samoa) was explored through a multi-proxy palaeoecological investigation of sediments obatined from Lake Lanoto'o. Charcoal, pollen, spores, plant remains, algae and cyanobacteria we analysed from a sediment record spanning c. 10,500 years. These data are presented here and were used in the associated manuscript to reconstruct the fire, vegetation and lake history on Upolu. We intepret these data as indicating that macrocharcoal is an effective proxy for detecting human occupation, that initial human populations had a minimal impact on the islands ecosystems, and that human impacts decreased with increasing distance from the coast.
DRYAD
Gosling, William
75de50b1-a15e-4dda-8d84-0c14b8ab9a2d
Sear, David
ccd892ab-a93d-4073-a11c-b8bca42ecfd3
Hassall, Jonathan
17b719cf-5b7b-496a-8bf7-96c57618baca
Langdon, Peter
95b97671-f9fe-4884-aca6-9aa3cd1a6d7f
Bönnen, Mick
f1f541c3-36e3-494c-9c1a-5be60460521c
Driessen, Tessa
55930c62-3f40-4ea5-a148-a2ffeee6509b
Van Kemenada, Zoë
63c0ec75-0846-4a41-9c9a-32fa5891344b
Noort, Kevin
5a12a0d1-c24f-45e0-92a7-58b348ffd0df
Leng, Melanie
71755042-2b5f-44a6-8420-019f13a4a946
Croudace, Ian
24deb068-d096-485e-8a23-a32b7a68afaf
Bourne, Anna
ca184ead-1dc3-4b0f-8a01-cb427838d996
McMichael, Crystal
9165af5f-82ae-4700-adf1-dea2606f4e5d
Gosling, William
75de50b1-a15e-4dda-8d84-0c14b8ab9a2d
Sear, David
ccd892ab-a93d-4073-a11c-b8bca42ecfd3
Hassall, Jonathan
17b719cf-5b7b-496a-8bf7-96c57618baca
Langdon, Peter
95b97671-f9fe-4884-aca6-9aa3cd1a6d7f
Bönnen, Mick
f1f541c3-36e3-494c-9c1a-5be60460521c
Driessen, Tessa
55930c62-3f40-4ea5-a148-a2ffeee6509b
Van Kemenada, Zoë
63c0ec75-0846-4a41-9c9a-32fa5891344b
Noort, Kevin
5a12a0d1-c24f-45e0-92a7-58b348ffd0df
Leng, Melanie
71755042-2b5f-44a6-8420-019f13a4a946
Croudace, Ian
24deb068-d096-485e-8a23-a32b7a68afaf
Bourne, Anna
ca184ead-1dc3-4b0f-8a01-cb427838d996
McMichael, Crystal
9165af5f-82ae-4700-adf1-dea2606f4e5d

(2019) Data from: Human occupation and ecosystem change on Upolu (Samoa) during the Holocene. DRYAD doi:10.5061/dryad.51c59zw4j [Dataset]

Record type: Dataset

Abstract

All data related to the palaeoecological investigation of Lake Lanoto'o (Upolu, Samoa) is provided in .xls and .c2 format. The data contained within the two files is identical, however, the .c2 file loads directly into the stratigraphic plotting program C2 (https://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/stephen.juggins/software/C2Home.htm) and contains the interactive versions of the figures presented in the associated manuscript. The datasets within the .xls file are organised into tabs based on the data type: Metadata - manuscript title, authors, and data location Lead210Dates - link to reference containing Lead210 chronological control data RadiocarbonDates - list of radiocarbon dates obtained from the study site Chronology - details of how the relationship between the depth and age of sediments was established TOC+CN - Total Organic Carbon and Carbon/Nitrogen datasets Magnetic - Magnetic susceptibility data Ti - Titanium data Microcharcoal - Charcoal fragments < 160 microns (identified on pollen slides) Macrocharcoal - Charcoal fragments > 160 microns PollenCounts - Pollen and spore data PollenPercentages - Pollen and spore data converted to percentage abundance relative to the terrestrial pollen sum MacroscopicRemains - Seed and fern sporangia data (identified in macrocharcoal samples) AlgalCounts - Algal and cyanobacterial data (identified on pollen slides) AlgalPercentage - Algal and cyanobacterial data converted to percentage abundance relative to the total abundance of algae and cyanobacteria,Aim To track the peopling of the South Pacific and assess their impact on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Location Upolu, Samoa. Taxon Ancient charcoal, pollen, sprores, algae and cyanobacteria types are recorded. Methods A sedimentary record covering the last c. 10,500 years was recovered from the volcanic crater that contains Lake Lanoto'o near the centre of Upolu Island. Information on past ecological change was obtained from microscopic and macroscopic remains extracted from the sediments: charcoal (fire history), pollen/spores and plant remains (vegetation history), and lake status (algae/cyanobacteria). Information on the depositional environment and climate was obtained from geochemical and sedimentary analysis: loss‐on‐ignition (sediment composition), cryptotephras (volcanic eruptions) and precipitation regime (Ti/inc). The environmental history developed was compared with the archaeological record from the region. Results Charcoal material was found in the Lake Lanoto'o sediments at higher abundances and more frequently in samples from the period after the first archaeological evidence of people on Upolu (c. 2900–2700 years ago). No abrupt shift is recognized in the vegetation or aquatic ecosystem assemblages coincident with the arrival of people on the island. Main conclusions Macrocharcoal is demonstrated to be an effective proxy for detecting human occupation of Upolu around 2,800 years ago. The immediate impact of these settlers on the vegetation seems to have been minimal; however, a subsequent opening up of the landscape is suggested through the gradual increase in ferns. The absence of any significant change in the aquatic community associated with, or after, the arrival of people on the islands suggests that humans rarely visited the lake. We suggest that on Upolu a simple model of decreasing human impact away from coastal areas is applicable.,The timing and ecological impact of the peopling of the South Pacific island of Upolu (Samoa) was explored through a multi-proxy palaeoecological investigation of sediments obatined from Lake Lanoto'o. Charcoal, pollen, spores, plant remains, algae and cyanobacteria we analysed from a sediment record spanning c. 10,500 years. These data are presented here and were used in the associated manuscript to reconstruct the fire, vegetation and lake history on Upolu. We intepret these data as indicating that macrocharcoal is an effective proxy for detecting human occupation, that initial human populations had a minimal impact on the islands ecosystems, and that human impacts decreased with increasing distance from the coast.

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Published date: 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 448672
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/448672
PURE UUID: dbccf96c-cbe4-41e7-be8d-2c275be97b69
ORCID for David Sear: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-0191-6179
ORCID for Peter Langdon: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-2724-2643
ORCID for Anna Bourne: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-1506-6160

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Date deposited: 29 Apr 2021 16:32
Last modified: 19 Nov 2022 02:34

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Contributors

Contributor: William Gosling
Contributor: David Sear ORCID iD
Contributor: Jonathan Hassall
Contributor: Peter Langdon ORCID iD
Contributor: Mick Bönnen
Contributor: Tessa Driessen
Contributor: Zoë Van Kemenada
Contributor: Kevin Noort
Contributor: Melanie Leng
Contributor: Ian Croudace
Contributor: Anna Bourne ORCID iD
Contributor: Crystal McMichael

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