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Hybridizing lead–acid batteries with supercapacitors: a methodology

Hybridizing lead–acid batteries with supercapacitors: a methodology
Hybridizing lead–acid batteries with supercapacitors: a methodology

Hybridizing a lead–acid battery energy storage system (ESS) with supercapacitors is a promising solution to cope with the increased battery degradation in standalone microgrids that suffer from irregular electricity profiles. There are many studies in the literature on such hybrid energy storage systems (HESS), usually examining the various hybridization aspects separately. This paper provides a holistic look at the design of an HESS. A new control scheme is proposed that applies power filtering to smooth out the battery profile, while strictly adhering to the supercapacitors’ voltage limits. A new lead– acid battery model is introduced, which accounts for the combined effects of a microcycle’s depth of discharge (DoD) and battery temperature, usually considered separately in the literature. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis on the thermal parameters and an economic analysis were performed using a 90-day electricity profile from an actual DC microgrid in India to infer the hybridization benefit. The results show that the hybridization is beneficial mainly at poor thermal conditions and highlight the need for a battery degradation model that considers both the DoD effect with microcycle resolution and temperate impact to accurately assess the gain from such a hybridization.

Battery degradation, Depth of discharge, Energy management system, Hybrid energy storage system, Lead–acid battery, Supercapacitor, Techno-economic analysis
1996-1073
1-27
Luo, Xi
bf177c22-878d-4151-ae24-f8399560b07c
Barreras, Jorge Varela
78b21e47-a0f1-4952-9846-2957f8f1869f
Chambon, Clementine L.
97cc3178-d9b9-44e5-ac03-e93b880df3d7
Wu, Billy
0f506657-b825-476c-bd38-6d8f4827938f
Batzelis, Efstratios
2a85086e-e403-443c-81a6-e3b4ee16ae5e
Luo, Xi
bf177c22-878d-4151-ae24-f8399560b07c
Barreras, Jorge Varela
78b21e47-a0f1-4952-9846-2957f8f1869f
Chambon, Clementine L.
97cc3178-d9b9-44e5-ac03-e93b880df3d7
Wu, Billy
0f506657-b825-476c-bd38-6d8f4827938f
Batzelis, Efstratios
2a85086e-e403-443c-81a6-e3b4ee16ae5e

Luo, Xi, Barreras, Jorge Varela, Chambon, Clementine L., Wu, Billy and Batzelis, Efstratios (2021) Hybridizing lead–acid batteries with supercapacitors: a methodology. Energies, 14 (2), 1-27, [507]. (doi:10.3390/en14020507).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Hybridizing a lead–acid battery energy storage system (ESS) with supercapacitors is a promising solution to cope with the increased battery degradation in standalone microgrids that suffer from irregular electricity profiles. There are many studies in the literature on such hybrid energy storage systems (HESS), usually examining the various hybridization aspects separately. This paper provides a holistic look at the design of an HESS. A new control scheme is proposed that applies power filtering to smooth out the battery profile, while strictly adhering to the supercapacitors’ voltage limits. A new lead– acid battery model is introduced, which accounts for the combined effects of a microcycle’s depth of discharge (DoD) and battery temperature, usually considered separately in the literature. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis on the thermal parameters and an economic analysis were performed using a 90-day electricity profile from an actual DC microgrid in India to infer the hybridization benefit. The results show that the hybridization is beneficial mainly at poor thermal conditions and highlight the need for a battery degradation model that considers both the DoD effect with microcycle resolution and temperate impact to accurately assess the gain from such a hybridization.

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Accepted/In Press date: 13 January 2021
e-pub ahead of print date: 19 January 2021
Additional Information: Funding Information: Funding: This research has been supported by the Royal Academy of Engineering under the Engineering for Development Research Fellowship scheme (number RF\201819\18\86) and EPSRC Faraday Institution’s Multi-Scale Modelling Project (EP/S003053/1, grant number FIRG003). Publisher Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
Keywords: Battery degradation, Depth of discharge, Energy management system, Hybrid energy storage system, Lead–acid battery, Supercapacitor, Techno-economic analysis

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 449684
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/449684
ISSN: 1996-1073
PURE UUID: 6a03cb17-301a-4ac3-9846-8440ac9223f8

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Date deposited: 10 Jun 2021 16:32
Last modified: 10 Jun 2021 16:32

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Contributors

Author: Xi Luo
Author: Jorge Varela Barreras
Author: Clementine L. Chambon
Author: Billy Wu
Author: Efstratios Batzelis

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