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What do the terms resistance, tolerance, and resilience mean in the case of Ostrea edulis infected by the haplosporidian parasite Bonamia ostreae

What do the terms resistance, tolerance, and resilience mean in the case of Ostrea edulis infected by the haplosporidian parasite Bonamia ostreae
What do the terms resistance, tolerance, and resilience mean in the case of Ostrea edulis infected by the haplosporidian parasite Bonamia ostreae

The decline of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis represents a loss to European coastal economies both in terms of food security and by affecting the Good Environmental Status of the marine environment as set out by the European Council's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC). Restoration of O. edulis habitat is being widely discussed across Europe, addressing key challenges such as the devastating impact of the haplosporidian parasite Bonamia ostreae. The use of resistant, tolerant, or resilient oysters as restoration broodstock has been proposed by restoration practitioners, but the definitions and implications of these superficially familiar terms have yet to be defined and agreed by all stakeholders. This opinion piece considers the challenges of differentiating Bonamia resistance, tolerance, and resilience; challenges which impede the adoption of robust definitions. We argue that, disease-resistance is reduced susceptibility to infection by the parasite, or active suppression of the parasites ability to multiply and proliferate. Disease-tolerance is the retention of fitness and an ability to neutralise the virulence of the parasite. Disease-resilience is the ability to recover from illness and, at population level, tolerance could be interpreted as resilience. We concede that further work is required to resolve practical uncertainty in applying these definitions, and argue for a collaboration of experts to achieve consensus. Failure to act now might result in the future dispersal of this disease into new locations and populations, because robust definitions are important components of regulatory mechanisms that underpin marine management.

Bonamia ostreae, Definitions, Ostrea edulis, Resistance, Restoration, Tolerance
0022-2011
107579
Holbrook, Zoë
aaab6a07-4e93-48a5-9da8-a436a9b1f5d1
Bean, Tim P.
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Lynch, Sharon A.
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Hauton, Chris
6ced1eb9-f074-45b1-98ec-3101b80dd527
Holbrook, Zoë
aaab6a07-4e93-48a5-9da8-a436a9b1f5d1
Bean, Tim P.
dd190f37-0486-457d-b9e3-f60c5dc529b2
Lynch, Sharon A.
4dfb6d6f-4111-4fe9-9b3e-5a83854f1347
Hauton, Chris
6ced1eb9-f074-45b1-98ec-3101b80dd527

Holbrook, Zoë, Bean, Tim P., Lynch, Sharon A. and Hauton, Chris (2021) What do the terms resistance, tolerance, and resilience mean in the case of Ostrea edulis infected by the haplosporidian parasite Bonamia ostreae. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 182, 107579. (doi:10.1016/j.jip.2021.107579).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The decline of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis represents a loss to European coastal economies both in terms of food security and by affecting the Good Environmental Status of the marine environment as set out by the European Council's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC). Restoration of O. edulis habitat is being widely discussed across Europe, addressing key challenges such as the devastating impact of the haplosporidian parasite Bonamia ostreae. The use of resistant, tolerant, or resilient oysters as restoration broodstock has been proposed by restoration practitioners, but the definitions and implications of these superficially familiar terms have yet to be defined and agreed by all stakeholders. This opinion piece considers the challenges of differentiating Bonamia resistance, tolerance, and resilience; challenges which impede the adoption of robust definitions. We argue that, disease-resistance is reduced susceptibility to infection by the parasite, or active suppression of the parasites ability to multiply and proliferate. Disease-tolerance is the retention of fitness and an ability to neutralise the virulence of the parasite. Disease-resilience is the ability to recover from illness and, at population level, tolerance could be interpreted as resilience. We concede that further work is required to resolve practical uncertainty in applying these definitions, and argue for a collaboration of experts to achieve consensus. Failure to act now might result in the future dispersal of this disease into new locations and populations, because robust definitions are important components of regulatory mechanisms that underpin marine management.

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Holbrook et al 2021 JIP final
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Accepted/In Press date: 25 February 2021
Published date: 1 June 2021
Additional Information: Funding Information: ZH is supported by a Scholarship from the “Understanding Maritime Futures: Opportunities, Challenges, and Threats” Leverhulme Doctoral Scholarship Grant (DS-2014-073) from the Leverhulme Trust to the Southampton Marine and Maritime Institute, University of Southampton. TB is supported by UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and the Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre via the AquaLeap project (reference number BB/S004343/1), and BBSRC Institute Strategic Programme grants (BBS/E/D/20002172, BBS/E/D/20002174 and BBS/E/D/30002276). SL is supported by the EU European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) Ireland-Wales Co-operation programme Bluefish project (Grant Agreement No. 80991). Publisher Copyright: © 2021 Elsevier Inc. Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
Keywords: Bonamia ostreae, Definitions, Ostrea edulis, Resistance, Restoration, Tolerance

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 449950
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/449950
ISSN: 0022-2011
PURE UUID: 5b31a63e-ebf7-4e28-9869-0f0c501b51e7

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Date deposited: 29 Jun 2021 16:35
Last modified: 25 Nov 2021 19:42

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Contributors

Author: Zoë Holbrook
Author: Tim P. Bean
Author: Sharon A. Lynch
Author: Chris Hauton

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