The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository
Warning ePrints Soton is experiencing an issue with some file downloads not being available. We are working hard to fix this. Please bear with us.

Carriage of upper respiratory tract pathogens in rural communities of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo

Carriage of upper respiratory tract pathogens in rural communities of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo
Carriage of upper respiratory tract pathogens in rural communities of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo

Introduction: pneumonia is a leading cause of death in Malaysia. Whilst many studies have reported the aetiology of pneumonia in Western countries, the epidemiology of pneumonia in Malaysia remains poorly understood. As carriage is a prerequisite for disease, we sought to improve our understanding of the carriage and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of respiratory tract pathogens in Malaysia. The rural communities of Sarawak are an understudied part of the Malaysian population and were the focus of this study, allowing us to gain a better understanding of bacterial epidemiology in this population.

Methods: a population-based survey of bacterial carriage was undertaken in participants of all ages from rural communities in Sarawak, Malaysia. Nasopharyngeal, nasal, mouth and oropharyngeal swabs were taken. Bacteria were isolated from each swab and identified by culture-based methods and antimicrobial susceptibility testing conducted by disk diffusion or E test.

Results: 140 participants were recruited from five rural communities. Klebsiella pneumoniae was most commonly isolated from participants (30.0%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (20.7%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (10.7%), Haemophilus influenzae (9.3%), Moraxella catarrhalis (6.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.4%) and Neisseria meningitidis (5.0%). Of the 21 S. pneumoniae isolated, 33.3 and 14.3% were serotypes included in the 13 valent PCV (PCV13) and 10 valent PCV (PCV10) respectively. 33.8% of all species were resistant to at least one antibiotic, however all bacterial species except S. pneumoniae were susceptible to at least one type of antibiotic.

Conclusion: to our knowledge, this is the first bacterial carriage study undertaken in East Malaysia. We provide valuable and timely data regarding the epidemiology and AMR of respiratory pathogens commonly associated with pneumonia. Further surveillance in Malaysia is necessary to monitor changes in the carriage prevalence of upper respiratory tract pathogens and the emergence of AMR, particularly as PCV is added to the National Immunisation Programme (NIP).

AMR, Carriage, Malaysia, Pathogen, Pneumonia, Respiratory
2200-6133
6
Morris, Denise E
5de4af5f-4112-4bf5-a8b5-6636661244e9
McNeil, Hannah
ca06cd91-3005-4321-858b-bab81da76ab4
Hocknell, Rebecca E
42441e39-fd24-42b2-80e5-f5ddd4588f6d
Anderson, Rebecca
3b1eb108-4d0d-4fd6-a1a6-50f2cc03a533
Tuck, Andrew C
90d0a731-080b-4872-8fc0-45cd71db1e2c
Tricarico, Serena
e026a1aa-d584-4295-8097-a8724d67ea60
Norazmi, Mohd Nor
b70e45c6-27a2-45be-bcfd-40ed93114bda
Lim, Victor
fcefcaba-1a83-4ace-8b3f-2d094b2404bf
Siang, Tan Cheng
31c89d10-ad48-4536-a2f3-f1aaea636dbe
Lim, Patricia Kim Chooi
84a5f6ec-bc5f-4ca6-8a05-2e9fd7fd0f0b
Wie, Chong Chun
392fda42-5d71-45ca-85cd-925ea94022ea
Cleary, David W
f4079c6d-d54b-4108-b346-b0069035bec0
Yap, Ivan Kok Seng
4ee6e2a7-0318-428c-a0bc-b4b05ed15a66
Clarke, Stuart C
f7d7f7a2-4b1f-4b36-883a-0f967e73fb17
Mcgrath, Nuala
b75c0232-24ec-443f-93a9-69e9e12dc961
Faust, Saul
f97df780-9f9b-418e-b349-7adf63e150c1
Roderick, Paul
dbb3cd11-4c51-4844-982b-0eb30ad5085a
MYCarriage group
Morris, Denise E
5de4af5f-4112-4bf5-a8b5-6636661244e9
McNeil, Hannah
ca06cd91-3005-4321-858b-bab81da76ab4
Hocknell, Rebecca E
42441e39-fd24-42b2-80e5-f5ddd4588f6d
Anderson, Rebecca
3b1eb108-4d0d-4fd6-a1a6-50f2cc03a533
Tuck, Andrew C
90d0a731-080b-4872-8fc0-45cd71db1e2c
Tricarico, Serena
e026a1aa-d584-4295-8097-a8724d67ea60
Norazmi, Mohd Nor
b70e45c6-27a2-45be-bcfd-40ed93114bda
Lim, Victor
fcefcaba-1a83-4ace-8b3f-2d094b2404bf
Siang, Tan Cheng
31c89d10-ad48-4536-a2f3-f1aaea636dbe
Lim, Patricia Kim Chooi
84a5f6ec-bc5f-4ca6-8a05-2e9fd7fd0f0b
Wie, Chong Chun
392fda42-5d71-45ca-85cd-925ea94022ea
Cleary, David W
f4079c6d-d54b-4108-b346-b0069035bec0
Yap, Ivan Kok Seng
4ee6e2a7-0318-428c-a0bc-b4b05ed15a66
Clarke, Stuart C
f7d7f7a2-4b1f-4b36-883a-0f967e73fb17
Mcgrath, Nuala
b75c0232-24ec-443f-93a9-69e9e12dc961
Faust, Saul
f97df780-9f9b-418e-b349-7adf63e150c1
Roderick, Paul
dbb3cd11-4c51-4844-982b-0eb30ad5085a

Morris, Denise E, McNeil, Hannah, Hocknell, Rebecca E, Anderson, Rebecca, Tuck, Andrew C, Tricarico, Serena, Norazmi, Mohd Nor, Lim, Victor, Siang, Tan Cheng, Lim, Patricia Kim Chooi, Wie, Chong Chun, Cleary, David W, Yap, Ivan Kok Seng and Clarke, Stuart C , MYCarriage group (2021) Carriage of upper respiratory tract pathogens in rural communities of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Pneumonia, 13 (1), 6. (doi:10.1186/s41479-021-00084-9).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Introduction: pneumonia is a leading cause of death in Malaysia. Whilst many studies have reported the aetiology of pneumonia in Western countries, the epidemiology of pneumonia in Malaysia remains poorly understood. As carriage is a prerequisite for disease, we sought to improve our understanding of the carriage and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of respiratory tract pathogens in Malaysia. The rural communities of Sarawak are an understudied part of the Malaysian population and were the focus of this study, allowing us to gain a better understanding of bacterial epidemiology in this population.

Methods: a population-based survey of bacterial carriage was undertaken in participants of all ages from rural communities in Sarawak, Malaysia. Nasopharyngeal, nasal, mouth and oropharyngeal swabs were taken. Bacteria were isolated from each swab and identified by culture-based methods and antimicrobial susceptibility testing conducted by disk diffusion or E test.

Results: 140 participants were recruited from five rural communities. Klebsiella pneumoniae was most commonly isolated from participants (30.0%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (20.7%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (10.7%), Haemophilus influenzae (9.3%), Moraxella catarrhalis (6.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.4%) and Neisseria meningitidis (5.0%). Of the 21 S. pneumoniae isolated, 33.3 and 14.3% were serotypes included in the 13 valent PCV (PCV13) and 10 valent PCV (PCV10) respectively. 33.8% of all species were resistant to at least one antibiotic, however all bacterial species except S. pneumoniae were susceptible to at least one type of antibiotic.

Conclusion: to our knowledge, this is the first bacterial carriage study undertaken in East Malaysia. We provide valuable and timely data regarding the epidemiology and AMR of respiratory pathogens commonly associated with pneumonia. Further surveillance in Malaysia is necessary to monitor changes in the carriage prevalence of upper respiratory tract pathogens and the emergence of AMR, particularly as PCV is added to the National Immunisation Programme (NIP).

Text
s41479-021-00084-9 - Version of Record
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.
Download (4kB)

More information

Accepted/In Press date: 22 March 2021
e-pub ahead of print date: 25 April 2021
Published date: 25 April 2021
Keywords: AMR, Carriage, Malaysia, Pathogen, Pneumonia, Respiratory

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 450134
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/450134
ISSN: 2200-6133
PURE UUID: f1f7ee6e-7f8c-44e3-9581-67a33614bbc5
ORCID for Serena Tricarico: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1737-8697
ORCID for David W Cleary: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4533-0700
ORCID for Stuart C Clarke: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-7009-1548
ORCID for Nuala Mcgrath: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1039-0159
ORCID for Saul Faust: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3410-7642
ORCID for Paul Roderick: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9475-6850

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 13 Jul 2021 16:30
Last modified: 12 Nov 2021 02:53

Export record

Altmetrics

Contributors

Author: Denise E Morris
Author: Hannah McNeil
Author: Rebecca E Hocknell
Author: Rebecca Anderson
Author: Andrew C Tuck
Author: Serena Tricarico ORCID iD
Author: Mohd Nor Norazmi
Author: Victor Lim
Author: Tan Cheng Siang
Author: Patricia Kim Chooi Lim
Author: Chong Chun Wie
Author: David W Cleary ORCID iD
Author: Ivan Kok Seng Yap
Author: Stuart C Clarke ORCID iD
Author: Nuala Mcgrath ORCID iD
Author: Saul Faust ORCID iD
Author: Paul Roderick ORCID iD
Corporate Author: MYCarriage group

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton: eprints@soton.ac.uk

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/cgi/oai2

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.

×