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Beneficial outcomes of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human health: an update for 2021

Beneficial outcomes of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human health: an update for 2021
Beneficial outcomes of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human health: an update for 2021
Oxidative stress and inflammation have been recognized as important contributors to the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may regulate the antioxidant signaling pathway and modulate inflammatory processes. They also influence hepatic lipid metabolism and physiological responses of other organs, including the heart. Longitudinal prospective cohort studies demonstrate that there is an association between moderate intake of the omega-6 PUFA linoleic acid and lower risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), most likely as a result of lower blood cholesterol concentration. Current evidence suggests that increasing intake of arachidonic acid (up to 1500 mg/day) has no adverse effect on platelet aggregation and blood clotting, immune function and markers of inflammation, but may benefit muscle and cognitive performance. Many studies show that higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are associated with a lower incidence of chronic diseases characterized by elevated inflammation, including CVDs. This is because of the multiple molecular and cellular actions of EPA and DHA. Intervention trials using EPA + DHA indicate benefit on CVD mortality and a significant inverse linear dose–response relationship has been found between EPA + DHA intake and CVD outcomes. In addition to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles, omega-3 fatty acids are considered to regulate platelet homeostasis and lower risk of thrombosis, which together indicate their potential use in COVID-19 therapy.



COVID-19, Inflammation, Omega-3 fatty acids, Omega-6 fatty acids, Oxidative stress
2072-6643
Djuricic, Ivana
c248d199-eb92-4b64-a365-ee10345cde23
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6
Djuricic, Ivana
c248d199-eb92-4b64-a365-ee10345cde23
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6

Djuricic, Ivana and Calder, Philip (2021) Beneficial outcomes of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human health: an update for 2021. Nutrients, 13 (7), [2421]. (doi:10.3390/nu13072421).

Record type: Review

Abstract

Oxidative stress and inflammation have been recognized as important contributors to the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may regulate the antioxidant signaling pathway and modulate inflammatory processes. They also influence hepatic lipid metabolism and physiological responses of other organs, including the heart. Longitudinal prospective cohort studies demonstrate that there is an association between moderate intake of the omega-6 PUFA linoleic acid and lower risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), most likely as a result of lower blood cholesterol concentration. Current evidence suggests that increasing intake of arachidonic acid (up to 1500 mg/day) has no adverse effect on platelet aggregation and blood clotting, immune function and markers of inflammation, but may benefit muscle and cognitive performance. Many studies show that higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are associated with a lower incidence of chronic diseases characterized by elevated inflammation, including CVDs. This is because of the multiple molecular and cellular actions of EPA and DHA. Intervention trials using EPA + DHA indicate benefit on CVD mortality and a significant inverse linear dose–response relationship has been found between EPA + DHA intake and CVD outcomes. In addition to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles, omega-3 fatty acids are considered to regulate platelet homeostasis and lower risk of thrombosis, which together indicate their potential use in COVID-19 therapy.



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Accepted/In Press date: 13 July 2021
e-pub ahead of print date: 15 July 2021
Published date: 15 July 2021
Additional Information: Publisher Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
Keywords: COVID-19, Inflammation, Omega-3 fatty acids, Omega-6 fatty acids, Oxidative stress

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 450339
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/450339
ISSN: 2072-6643
PURE UUID: ca2118e6-1946-492f-ba59-f3bb2a1ef119
ORCID for Philip Calder: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6038-710X

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 23 Jul 2021 18:12
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 02:38

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Contributors

Author: Ivana Djuricic
Author: Philip Calder ORCID iD

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