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My family and other animals: human demography under a comparative cross-species lens: comparative human demography

My family and other animals: human demography under a comparative cross-species lens: comparative human demography
My family and other animals: human demography under a comparative cross-species lens: comparative human demography
Like all species, the demography of humans has been shaped under the framework of natural selection. Our understanding of human demography can thus be enhanced by viewing it through a comparative, cross-species, lens and exploring the position of humans among other animal species. Here we use demographic data in the form of matrix population models (MPMs) from humans and 90 other animal species to contextualize patterns of human evolutionary demography. We conduct an additional analysis using human MPM data derived from raw census data from 96 countries over a period spanning 1780 to 2014. For each MPM we calculate a suite of demographic variables that describe multi-component life history strategy and use principal component analysis (PCA) to contextualize human populations among the other vertebrates. We show that, across species, life history strategy can be described by position across two dominant axes of variation and that human life history strategy is indeed set apart from that of other animals. We argue that life history architecture -- the set of relationships among life history traits including their correlations and trade-offs -- is fundamentally different within humans than across all animal species - perhaps because of fundamental distinction in the processes driving within-species and among-species differences. We illustrate strong general temporal trends in life history strategy in humans and highlight both striking commonalities and some differences among countries. For example, there is a general for traversal across life history space that reflects increased life expectancy and life span equality but there is also among- country variation in the trajectories that remains to be explained. Our approach of distilling complex demographic strategies into principal component axes offers a useful tool for the exploration of human demography.
Jones, Owen
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Ezard, Thomas
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Dooley, Claire
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Healy, Kevin
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Hodgson, David J.
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Mueller, Markus
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Townley, Stuart
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Salguero-Gomez, Roberto
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Sear, Rebecca
Burger, Oskar
Jones, Owen
f2c5b23b-40c4-4dbe-af40-f19bfd6bd2be
Ezard, Thomas
a143a893-07d0-4673-a2dd-cea2cd7e1374
Dooley, Claire
8caf4d90-5b57-4f92-a6e6-ff2399114af1
Healy, Kevin
083deac1-1ed4-4768-8ed1-245ec6827e34
Hodgson, David J.
49e5a34a-00c5-4236-b3db-ef9a38e4957a
Mueller, Markus
d7397558-1140-4088-95f2-90244bab3e23
Townley, Stuart
29a6f26d-c436-4b76-b310-9b5b867ecd44
Salguero-Gomez, Roberto
d82c82b8-a1d4-47b5-ad62-8b2f5db217f7
Sear, Rebecca
Burger, Oskar

Jones, Owen, Ezard, Thomas, Dooley, Claire, Healy, Kevin, Hodgson, David J., Mueller, Markus, Townley, Stuart and Salguero-Gomez, Roberto (2021) My family and other animals: human demography under a comparative cross-species lens: comparative human demography. In, Sear, Rebecca and Burger, Oskar (eds.) Human Evolutionary Demography.

Record type: Book Section

Abstract

Like all species, the demography of humans has been shaped under the framework of natural selection. Our understanding of human demography can thus be enhanced by viewing it through a comparative, cross-species, lens and exploring the position of humans among other animal species. Here we use demographic data in the form of matrix population models (MPMs) from humans and 90 other animal species to contextualize patterns of human evolutionary demography. We conduct an additional analysis using human MPM data derived from raw census data from 96 countries over a period spanning 1780 to 2014. For each MPM we calculate a suite of demographic variables that describe multi-component life history strategy and use principal component analysis (PCA) to contextualize human populations among the other vertebrates. We show that, across species, life history strategy can be described by position across two dominant axes of variation and that human life history strategy is indeed set apart from that of other animals. We argue that life history architecture -- the set of relationships among life history traits including their correlations and trade-offs -- is fundamentally different within humans than across all animal species - perhaps because of fundamental distinction in the processes driving within-species and among-species differences. We illustrate strong general temporal trends in life history strategy in humans and highlight both striking commonalities and some differences among countries. For example, there is a general for traversal across life history space that reflects increased life expectancy and life span equality but there is also among- country variation in the trajectories that remains to be explained. Our approach of distilling complex demographic strategies into principal component axes offers a useful tool for the exploration of human demography.

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3.2 Jones et al comparative human demography - Accepted Manuscript
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Published date: 10 April 2021
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Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 450340
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/450340
PURE UUID: ea84e8ed-2305-4106-803f-7a496658f64b
ORCID for Thomas Ezard: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8305-6605

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Date deposited: 23 Jul 2021 18:12
Last modified: 24 Jul 2021 01:44

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Contributors

Author: Owen Jones
Author: Thomas Ezard ORCID iD
Author: Claire Dooley
Author: Kevin Healy
Author: David J. Hodgson
Author: Markus Mueller
Author: Stuart Townley
Author: Roberto Salguero-Gomez
Editor: Rebecca Sear
Editor: Oskar Burger

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