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Searching for Saturn's X-rays during a rare Jupiter Magnetotail crossing using Chandra

Searching for Saturn's X-rays during a rare Jupiter Magnetotail crossing using Chandra
Searching for Saturn's X-rays during a rare Jupiter Magnetotail crossing using Chandra
Every 19 yr, Saturn passes through Jupiter’s ‘flapping’ magnetotail. Here, we report Chandra X-ray observations of Saturnplanned to coincide with this rare planetary alignment and to analyse Saturn’s magnetospheric response when transitioning tothis unique parameter space. We analyse three Director’s Discretionary Time (DDT) observations from the High ResolutionCamera (HRC-I) on-board Chandra, taken on 2020 November 19, 21, and 23 with the aim to find auroral and/or disc emissions.We infer the conditions in the kronian system by looking at coincident soft X-ray solar flux data from the GeostationaryOperational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of Saturn’s ultraviolet (UV)auroral emissions. The large Saturn–Sun–Earth angle during this time would mean that most flares from the Earth-facing sideof the Sun would not have impacted Saturn. We find no significant detection of Saturn’s disc or auroral emissions in any of ourobservations.We calculate the 3σ upper band energy flux of Saturn during this time to be 0.9–3.04 × 10−14 erg cm−2 s−1 whichagrees with fluxes found from previous modelled spectra of the disc emissions. We conclude by discussing the implications ofthis non-detection and how it is imperative that the next fleet of X-ray telescope (such as Athena and the Lynx mission concept)continue to observe Saturn with their improved spatial and spectral resolution and very enhanced sensitivity to help us finallysolve the mysteries behind Saturn’s apparently elusive X-ray aurora.
0035-8711
298-305
Weigt, Dale, Michael
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Dunn, William R.
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Jackman, Caitriona
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Kraft, Ralph
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Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella
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Nichols, J.D.
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Wibisono, Affelia
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Vogt, M.F.
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Gladstone, G.R.
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Weigt, Dale, Michael
3ed9f7fd-d7e3-4082-8a61-679e9ffa6c9b
Dunn, William R.
ce8d659a-2bbb-4331-9807-b555b9907549
Jackman, Caitriona
9bc3456c-b254-48f1-ade0-912c5b8b4529
Kraft, Ralph
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Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella
36295f98-922c-47dc-879b-063a8ab190a5
Nichols, J.D.
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Wibisono, Affelia
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Vogt, M.F.
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Gladstone, G.R.
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Weigt, Dale, Michael, Dunn, William R., Jackman, Caitriona, Kraft, Ralph, Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella, Nichols, J.D., Wibisono, Affelia, Vogt, M.F. and Gladstone, G.R. (2021) Searching for Saturn's X-rays during a rare Jupiter Magnetotail crossing using Chandra. MNRAS, 506 (1), 298-305. (doi:10.1093/mnras/stab1680).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Every 19 yr, Saturn passes through Jupiter’s ‘flapping’ magnetotail. Here, we report Chandra X-ray observations of Saturnplanned to coincide with this rare planetary alignment and to analyse Saturn’s magnetospheric response when transitioning tothis unique parameter space. We analyse three Director’s Discretionary Time (DDT) observations from the High ResolutionCamera (HRC-I) on-board Chandra, taken on 2020 November 19, 21, and 23 with the aim to find auroral and/or disc emissions.We infer the conditions in the kronian system by looking at coincident soft X-ray solar flux data from the GeostationaryOperational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of Saturn’s ultraviolet (UV)auroral emissions. The large Saturn–Sun–Earth angle during this time would mean that most flares from the Earth-facing sideof the Sun would not have impacted Saturn. We find no significant detection of Saturn’s disc or auroral emissions in any of ourobservations.We calculate the 3σ upper band energy flux of Saturn during this time to be 0.9–3.04 × 10−14 erg cm−2 s−1 whichagrees with fluxes found from previous modelled spectra of the disc emissions. We conclude by discussing the implications ofthis non-detection and how it is imperative that the next fleet of X-ray telescope (such as Athena and the Lynx mission concept)continue to observe Saturn with their improved spatial and spectral resolution and very enhanced sensitivity to help us finallysolve the mysteries behind Saturn’s apparently elusive X-ray aurora.

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Searching for Saturn’s X-rays during a rare Jupiter Magnetotail crossing using Chandra - Accepted Manuscript
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Published date: 14 June 2021

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 450357
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/450357
ISSN: 0035-8711
PURE UUID: 8904480b-2b31-48b3-b439-320a23cdde28
ORCID for Caitriona Jackman: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-0635-7361

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Date deposited: 23 Jul 2021 18:14
Last modified: 24 Jul 2021 01:45

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Contributors

Author: Dale, Michael Weigt
Author: William R. Dunn
Author: Ralph Kraft
Author: Graziella Branduardi-Raymont
Author: J.D. Nichols
Author: Affelia Wibisono
Author: M.F. Vogt
Author: G.R. Gladstone

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