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The nexus between improved water supply and water-borne diseases in urban areas in Africa: a scoping review [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]

The nexus between improved water supply and water-borne diseases in urban areas in Africa: a scoping review [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]
The nexus between improved water supply and water-borne diseases in urban areas in Africa: a scoping review [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]
Background: The sub-Saharan Africa has the fastest rate of urbanisation in the world. However, infrastructure growth in the region is slower than urbanisation rates, leading to inadequate provision and access to basic services such as piped safe drinking water. Lack of sufficient access to safe water has the potential to increase the burden of waterborne diseases among these urbanising populations. This scoping review assesses how the relationship between waterborne diseases and water sufficiency in Africa has been studied.
Methods: In April 2020, we searched the Web of Science, PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar databases for studies of African cities that examined the effect of insufficient piped water supply on selected waterborne disease and syndromes (cholera, typhoid, diarrhea, amoebiasis, dysentery, gastroneteritis, cryptosporidium, cyclosporiasis, giardiasis, rotavirus). Only studies conducted in cities that had more than half a million residents in 2014 were included.
Results: A total of 32 studies in 24 cities from 17 countries were included in the study. Most studies used case-control, cross-sectional individual or ecological level study designs. Proportion of the study population with access to piped water was the common water availability metrics measured while amounts consumed per capita or water interruptions were seldom used in assessing sufficient water supply. Diarrhea, cholera and typhoid were the major diseases or syndromes used to understand the association between health and water sufficiency in urban areas. There was weak correlation between the study designs used and the association with health outcomes and water sufficiency metrics. Very few studies looked at change in health outcomes and water sufficiency over time.
Conclusion: Surveillance of health outcomes and the trends in piped water quantity and mode of access should be prioritised in urban areas in Africa in order to implement interventions towards reducing the burden associated with waterborne diseases and syndromes.
2515-9321
Nyamai, Mutono
c88301b3-e962-4e60-9d22-41e560d2de79
Wright, Jim
94990ecf-f8dd-4649-84f2-b28bf272e464
Mutembei, Henry
98366d1f-2996-465f-8733-5e85e5603827
Muema, Josphat
889cb571-9127-4fbb-bed9-f246c8807c87
Thomas, Mair L.H.
c43a2135-6dbc-4fc4-9c69-cd9ece0623b1
Mutunga, Mumbua
ce296f65-f6aa-4500-abc0-591ddf111081
Thumbi, Samuel
74b28f8d-fafb-432f-8129-394944f2ed1a
Nyamai, Mutono
c88301b3-e962-4e60-9d22-41e560d2de79
Wright, Jim
94990ecf-f8dd-4649-84f2-b28bf272e464
Mutembei, Henry
98366d1f-2996-465f-8733-5e85e5603827
Muema, Josphat
889cb571-9127-4fbb-bed9-f246c8807c87
Thomas, Mair L.H.
c43a2135-6dbc-4fc4-9c69-cd9ece0623b1
Mutunga, Mumbua
ce296f65-f6aa-4500-abc0-591ddf111081
Thumbi, Samuel
74b28f8d-fafb-432f-8129-394944f2ed1a

Nyamai, Mutono, Wright, Jim, Mutembei, Henry, Muema, Josphat, Thomas, Mair L.H., Mutunga, Mumbua and Thumbi, Samuel (2021) The nexus between improved water supply and water-borne diseases in urban areas in Africa: a scoping review [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]. AAS Open Research, 4 (27). (doi:10.12688/aasopenres.13225.1).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: The sub-Saharan Africa has the fastest rate of urbanisation in the world. However, infrastructure growth in the region is slower than urbanisation rates, leading to inadequate provision and access to basic services such as piped safe drinking water. Lack of sufficient access to safe water has the potential to increase the burden of waterborne diseases among these urbanising populations. This scoping review assesses how the relationship between waterborne diseases and water sufficiency in Africa has been studied.
Methods: In April 2020, we searched the Web of Science, PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar databases for studies of African cities that examined the effect of insufficient piped water supply on selected waterborne disease and syndromes (cholera, typhoid, diarrhea, amoebiasis, dysentery, gastroneteritis, cryptosporidium, cyclosporiasis, giardiasis, rotavirus). Only studies conducted in cities that had more than half a million residents in 2014 were included.
Results: A total of 32 studies in 24 cities from 17 countries were included in the study. Most studies used case-control, cross-sectional individual or ecological level study designs. Proportion of the study population with access to piped water was the common water availability metrics measured while amounts consumed per capita or water interruptions were seldom used in assessing sufficient water supply. Diarrhea, cholera and typhoid were the major diseases or syndromes used to understand the association between health and water sufficiency in urban areas. There was weak correlation between the study designs used and the association with health outcomes and water sufficiency metrics. Very few studies looked at change in health outcomes and water sufficiency over time.
Conclusion: Surveillance of health outcomes and the trends in piped water quantity and mode of access should be prioritised in urban areas in Africa in order to implement interventions towards reducing the burden associated with waterborne diseases and syndromes.

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e-pub ahead of print date: 28 May 2021

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 450517
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/450517
ISSN: 2515-9321
PURE UUID: 8a4b2621-d127-4de9-aab2-45ec29482ce7
ORCID for Jim Wright: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-8842-2181
ORCID for Mair L.H. Thomas: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-1899-2434

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 02 Aug 2021 16:31
Last modified: 03 Aug 2021 01:55

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Contributors

Author: Mutono Nyamai
Author: Jim Wright ORCID iD
Author: Henry Mutembei
Author: Josphat Muema
Author: Mumbua Mutunga
Author: Samuel Thumbi

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