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Millimeter wave power transmission for compact and large-area wearable IoT devices based on a higher-order mode wearable antenna

Millimeter wave power transmission for compact and large-area wearable IoT devices based on a higher-order mode wearable antenna
Millimeter wave power transmission for compact and large-area wearable IoT devices based on a higher-order mode wearable antenna
Owing to the shorter wavelength in the millimeter-wave (mmWave) spectrum, miniaturized antennas can receive power with a higher efficiency than UHF bands, promising sustainable mmWave-powered Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Nevertheless, the performance of a mmWave power receiver has not been compared, numerically or experimentally, to its sub-6~GHz counterpart. In this paper, the performance of mmWave-powered receivers is evaluated based on a novel wearable textile-based higher-order mode microstrip antenna, showing the benefits of wireless power transmission (WPT). Firstly, a broadband antenna is proposed maintaining a stable wearable measured bandwidth from 24.9 to 31.1~GHz, over three-fold improvement compared to a conventional patch. The proposed antenna has a measured 8.2~dBi co-polarized gain with the highest thickness-normalized efficiency of a wearable antenna. When evaluated for compact power receivers, the measured path gain shows that WPT at 26~GHz outperforms 2.4~GHz by 11~dB. A rectenna array based on the proposed antenna is then evaluated analytically showing the potential for up to 6.3x higher power reception compared to a UHF patch, based on the proposed antenna's gain and an empirical path-loss model. Both use cases demonstrate that mmWave-powered rectennas are suitable for area-constrained and large-area wearable IoT applications.
RF energy harvesting, WPT, antenna, e-textiles, flexible antennas, microstrip antenna, millimeter wave energy harvesting, millimeter-wave, mmWave, mmWave power harvesting, rectenna, rectennas, rectifiers, textile antennas, textile millimeter wave antenna, wearable millimeter wave antenna, wireless power transfer, wireless power transmission
2327-4662
Wagih, Mahmoud
7e7b16ba-0c64-4f95-bd3c-99064055f693
Hilton, Geoffrey S.
3edc9be4-ad15-4964-8093-953874cb9d94
Weddell, Alex S.
3d8c4d63-19b1-4072-a779-84d487fd6f03
Beeby, Steve
ba565001-2812-4300-89f1-fe5a437ecb0d
Wagih, Mahmoud
7e7b16ba-0c64-4f95-bd3c-99064055f693
Hilton, Geoffrey S.
3edc9be4-ad15-4964-8093-953874cb9d94
Weddell, Alex S.
3d8c4d63-19b1-4072-a779-84d487fd6f03
Beeby, Steve
ba565001-2812-4300-89f1-fe5a437ecb0d

Wagih, Mahmoud, Hilton, Geoffrey S., Weddell, Alex S. and Beeby, Steve (2021) Millimeter wave power transmission for compact and large-area wearable IoT devices based on a higher-order mode wearable antenna. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. (doi:10.1109/JIOT.2021.3107594).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Owing to the shorter wavelength in the millimeter-wave (mmWave) spectrum, miniaturized antennas can receive power with a higher efficiency than UHF bands, promising sustainable mmWave-powered Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Nevertheless, the performance of a mmWave power receiver has not been compared, numerically or experimentally, to its sub-6~GHz counterpart. In this paper, the performance of mmWave-powered receivers is evaluated based on a novel wearable textile-based higher-order mode microstrip antenna, showing the benefits of wireless power transmission (WPT). Firstly, a broadband antenna is proposed maintaining a stable wearable measured bandwidth from 24.9 to 31.1~GHz, over three-fold improvement compared to a conventional patch. The proposed antenna has a measured 8.2~dBi co-polarized gain with the highest thickness-normalized efficiency of a wearable antenna. When evaluated for compact power receivers, the measured path gain shows that WPT at 26~GHz outperforms 2.4~GHz by 11~dB. A rectenna array based on the proposed antenna is then evaluated analytically showing the potential for up to 6.3x higher power reception compared to a UHF patch, based on the proposed antenna's gain and an empirical path-loss model. Both use cases demonstrate that mmWave-powered rectennas are suitable for area-constrained and large-area wearable IoT applications.

Text
Wagih_JIOT2021_mmWave_WPT_Wearable_IoT - Accepted Manuscript
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 23 August 2021
e-pub ahead of print date: 25 August 2021
Keywords: RF energy harvesting, WPT, antenna, e-textiles, flexible antennas, microstrip antenna, millimeter wave energy harvesting, millimeter-wave, mmWave, mmWave power harvesting, rectenna, rectennas, rectifiers, textile antennas, textile millimeter wave antenna, wearable millimeter wave antenna, wireless power transfer, wireless power transmission

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 451027
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/451027
ISSN: 2327-4662
PURE UUID: 0bd4da6d-1b3d-4f7a-a7bf-496424cfce91
ORCID for Mahmoud Wagih: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-7806-4333
ORCID for Alex S. Weddell: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6763-5460
ORCID for Steve Beeby: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-0800-1759

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 03 Sep 2021 16:31
Last modified: 07 Oct 2021 02:03

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Contributors

Author: Mahmoud Wagih ORCID iD
Author: Geoffrey S. Hilton
Author: Alex S. Weddell ORCID iD
Author: Steve Beeby ORCID iD

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