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Revival of Philozoon Geddes for host-specialized dinoflagellates, ‘zooxanthellae’, in animals from coastal temperate zones of northern and southern hemispheres

Revival of Philozoon Geddes for host-specialized dinoflagellates, ‘zooxanthellae’, in animals from coastal temperate zones of northern and southern hemispheres
Revival of Philozoon Geddes for host-specialized dinoflagellates, ‘zooxanthellae’, in animals from coastal temperate zones of northern and southern hemispheres
The dinoflagellate family Symbiodiniaceae comprises numerous genera and species with large differences in diversity, ecology and geographic distribution. An evolutionarily divergent lineage common in temperate symbiotic cnidarians and designated in the literature by several informal names including ‘temperate–A’, AI, Phylotype A´ (A-prime) and ‘Mediterranean A’, is here assigned to the genus Philozoon. This genus was proposed by Geddes (1882) in one of the earliest papers that recognized ‘yellow cells’ as distinct biological entities separate from their animal and protist hosts. Using phylogenetic data from nuclear (rDNA), chloroplast (cp23S) and mitochondrial genes (cob and cox1), as well as morphology (cell size), ecological traits (host affinity) and geographic distributions, we emend the genus Philozoon Geddes and two of its species, P. medusarum and P. actiniarum, and describe six new species. Each symbiont species exhibits high host fidelity for particular species of sea anemone, soft coral, stony coral and a rhizostome jellyfish. Philozoon is most closely related to Symbiodinium (formerly Clade A), but, unlike its tropical counterpart, occurs in hosts in shallow temperate marine habitats in northern and southern hemispheres including the Mediterranean Sea, north-eastern Atlantic Ocean, eastern Australia, New Zealand and Chile. The existence of a species-diverse lineage adapted to cnidarian hosts living in high latitude habitats with inherently wide fluctuations in temperature calls further attention to the ecological and biogeographic reach of the Symbiodiniaceae.
Adaptive radiation, Mediterranean Sea, Symbiodiniaceae, ecological specialization, temperate zone, zooxanthellae
0967-0262
1-15
Lajeunesse, Todd C.
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Wiedenmann, Joerg
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Casado-amezúa, Pilar
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D’ambra, Isabella
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Turnham, Kira E.
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Nitschke, Matthew R.
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Oakley, Clinton A.
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Goffredo, Stefano
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Spano, Carlos A.
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Cubillos, Victor M.
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Davy, Simon K.
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Suggett, David J.
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Lajeunesse, Todd C.
1b4c7871-1dbd-44a6-8b5c-ea7877249e1e
Wiedenmann, Joerg
ad445af2-680f-4927-90b3-589ac9d538f7
Casado-amezúa, Pilar
c48efadf-e23b-4348-8075-88540e0b85ea
D’ambra, Isabella
dd22cb8d-9e5e-469d-8e51-d531c9143295
Turnham, Kira E.
eb05e930-9bf4-4570-88c5-6abb90fcd6ae
Nitschke, Matthew R.
150c2b22-5255-4199-bbfa-bdfaaf01e9ce
Oakley, Clinton A.
5bf20379-b848-4bb2-8592-78ce4846a17a
Goffredo, Stefano
11a0defc-f4db-4394-95ea-227dde52570b
Spano, Carlos A.
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Cubillos, Victor M.
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Davy, Simon K.
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Suggett, David J.
9100a791-1264-40e4-9403-8491190c3430

Lajeunesse, Todd C., Wiedenmann, Joerg, Casado-amezúa, Pilar, D’ambra, Isabella, Turnham, Kira E., Nitschke, Matthew R., Oakley, Clinton A., Goffredo, Stefano, Spano, Carlos A., Cubillos, Victor M., Davy, Simon K. and Suggett, David J. (2021) Revival of Philozoon Geddes for host-specialized dinoflagellates, ‘zooxanthellae’, in animals from coastal temperate zones of northern and southern hemispheres. European Journal of Phycology, 1-15. (doi:10.1080/09670262.2021.1914863).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The dinoflagellate family Symbiodiniaceae comprises numerous genera and species with large differences in diversity, ecology and geographic distribution. An evolutionarily divergent lineage common in temperate symbiotic cnidarians and designated in the literature by several informal names including ‘temperate–A’, AI, Phylotype A´ (A-prime) and ‘Mediterranean A’, is here assigned to the genus Philozoon. This genus was proposed by Geddes (1882) in one of the earliest papers that recognized ‘yellow cells’ as distinct biological entities separate from their animal and protist hosts. Using phylogenetic data from nuclear (rDNA), chloroplast (cp23S) and mitochondrial genes (cob and cox1), as well as morphology (cell size), ecological traits (host affinity) and geographic distributions, we emend the genus Philozoon Geddes and two of its species, P. medusarum and P. actiniarum, and describe six new species. Each symbiont species exhibits high host fidelity for particular species of sea anemone, soft coral, stony coral and a rhizostome jellyfish. Philozoon is most closely related to Symbiodinium (formerly Clade A), but, unlike its tropical counterpart, occurs in hosts in shallow temperate marine habitats in northern and southern hemispheres including the Mediterranean Sea, north-eastern Atlantic Ocean, eastern Australia, New Zealand and Chile. The existence of a species-diverse lineage adapted to cnidarian hosts living in high latitude habitats with inherently wide fluctuations in temperature calls further attention to the ecological and biogeographic reach of the Symbiodiniaceae.

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Revival of Philozoon Geddes ...
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Accepted/In Press date: 5 April 2021
e-pub ahead of print date: 28 June 2021
Keywords: Adaptive radiation, Mediterranean Sea, Symbiodiniaceae, ecological specialization, temperate zone, zooxanthellae

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 451253
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/451253
ISSN: 0967-0262
PURE UUID: 65566a4c-7d37-401f-ac09-1b5b32b1aa2b
ORCID for Joerg Wiedenmann: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-2128-2943

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 15 Sep 2021 16:30
Last modified: 16 Sep 2021 01:41

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Contributors

Author: Todd C. Lajeunesse
Author: Pilar Casado-amezúa
Author: Isabella D’ambra
Author: Kira E. Turnham
Author: Matthew R. Nitschke
Author: Clinton A. Oakley
Author: Stefano Goffredo
Author: Carlos A. Spano
Author: Victor M. Cubillos
Author: Simon K. Davy
Author: David J. Suggett

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