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Fracture risk assessment by the FRAX model

Fracture risk assessment by the FRAX model
Fracture risk assessment by the FRAX model
The introduction of the FRAX algorithms has facilitated the assessment of fracture risk on the basis of fracture probability. FRAX integrates the influence of several well-validated risk factors for fracture with or without the use of bone mineral density. Since age-specific rates of fracture and death differ across the world, FRAX models are calibrated with regard to the epidemiology of hip fracture (preferably from national sources) and mortality (usually United Nations sources). Models are currently available for 73 nations or territories covering more than 80% of the world population. FRAX has been incorporated into more than 80 guidelines worldwide, although the nature of this application has been heterogeneous. The limitations of FRAX have been extensively reviewed. Arithmetic procedures have been proposed in order to address some of these limitations, which can be applied to conventional FRAX estimates to accommodate knowledge of dose exposure to glucocorticoids, concurrent data on lumbar spine bone mineral density, information on trabecular bone score, hip axis length, falls history, type 2 diabetes, immigration status and recency of prior fracture.
FRAX, clinical risk factors, fracture probability, intervention thresholds, risk assessment
1369-7137
McCloskey, E.V.
38518227-db8f-4a53-88a6-462f469151de
Harvey, Nicholas
ce487fb4-d360-4aac-9d17-9466d6cba145
Johansson, H.
05aa5476-bcb9-4b97-905e-00f1dfd9d691
Lorentzon, M.
11692e10-5916-4bb5-86c5-3ff9ccd77af6
Liu, E.
63b60e12-5d42-4f66-ba55-24da69557b35
Vandenput, Lisbeth
51275083-bd2d-4d28-9b3b-f07c4d55aeb8
Leslie, W.D.
0c9bc973-969a-4049-aeb0-44a536074fb1
Kanis, J A.
55c6bd2c-d653-48de-b4b9-29fe280fb00f
McCloskey, E.V.
38518227-db8f-4a53-88a6-462f469151de
Harvey, Nicholas
ce487fb4-d360-4aac-9d17-9466d6cba145
Johansson, H.
05aa5476-bcb9-4b97-905e-00f1dfd9d691
Lorentzon, M.
11692e10-5916-4bb5-86c5-3ff9ccd77af6
Liu, E.
63b60e12-5d42-4f66-ba55-24da69557b35
Vandenput, Lisbeth
51275083-bd2d-4d28-9b3b-f07c4d55aeb8
Leslie, W.D.
0c9bc973-969a-4049-aeb0-44a536074fb1
Kanis, J A.
55c6bd2c-d653-48de-b4b9-29fe280fb00f

McCloskey, E.V., Harvey, Nicholas, Johansson, H., Lorentzon, M., Liu, E., Vandenput, Lisbeth, Leslie, W.D. and Kanis, J A. (2021) Fracture risk assessment by the FRAX model. Climacteric. (doi:10.1080/13697137.2021.1945027).

Record type: Review

Abstract

The introduction of the FRAX algorithms has facilitated the assessment of fracture risk on the basis of fracture probability. FRAX integrates the influence of several well-validated risk factors for fracture with or without the use of bone mineral density. Since age-specific rates of fracture and death differ across the world, FRAX models are calibrated with regard to the epidemiology of hip fracture (preferably from national sources) and mortality (usually United Nations sources). Models are currently available for 73 nations or territories covering more than 80% of the world population. FRAX has been incorporated into more than 80 guidelines worldwide, although the nature of this application has been heterogeneous. The limitations of FRAX have been extensively reviewed. Arithmetic procedures have been proposed in order to address some of these limitations, which can be applied to conventional FRAX estimates to accommodate knowledge of dose exposure to glucocorticoids, concurrent data on lumbar spine bone mineral density, information on trabecular bone score, hip axis length, falls history, type 2 diabetes, immigration status and recency of prior fracture.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 7 June 2021
e-pub ahead of print date: 28 July 2021
Published date: 28 July 2021
Keywords: FRAX, clinical risk factors, fracture probability, intervention thresholds, risk assessment

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 451401
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/451401
ISSN: 1369-7137
PURE UUID: e9b0e65d-97ca-42a1-af5c-d86ede4dd6d1
ORCID for Nicholas Harvey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-8194-2512

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 23 Sep 2021 16:40
Last modified: 15 Oct 2021 01:39

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Contributors

Author: E.V. McCloskey
Author: Nicholas Harvey ORCID iD
Author: H. Johansson
Author: M. Lorentzon
Author: E. Liu
Author: Lisbeth Vandenput
Author: W.D. Leslie
Author: J A. Kanis

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