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Laser-patterned paper-based flow-through filters and lateral flow immunoassays to enable the detection of C-reactive protein

Laser-patterned paper-based flow-through filters and lateral flow immunoassays to enable the detection of C-reactive protein
Laser-patterned paper-based flow-through filters and lateral flow immunoassays to enable the detection of C-reactive protein
We report the use of a laser-based fabrication process in the creation of paper-based flow-through filters that when combined with a traditional lateral flow immunoassay provide an alternative pathway for the detection of a pre-determined analyte over a wide concentration range. The laser-patterned approach was used to create polymeric structures that alter the porosity of the paper to produce porous flow-through filters, with controllable levels of porosity. When located on the top of the front end of a lateral flow immunoassay the flow-through filters were shown to block particles (of known sizes of 200 nm, 500 nm, 1000 nm and 3000 nm) that exceed the effective pore size of the filter while allowing smaller particles to flow through onto a lateral flow immunoassay. The analyte detection is based on the use of a size-exclusive filter that retains a complex (~3 µm in size) formed by the binding of the target analyte with two antibodies each of which is tagged with different-sized labels (40 nm Aunanoparticles and 3 µm latex beads), and which is larger than the effective pore size of the filter. This method was tested for the detection of C-reactive protein in a broad concentration range from 10 ng/ml to 100,000 ng/ml with a limit-of-detection found at 13 ng/ml and unlike other reported methods used for analyte detection, with this technique we are able to counter the Hook effect which is a limiting factor in many lateral flow immunoassays.
CRP detection, Hook effect, Laser patterning, Paper-based device, Porous flow-through filter, Pre-polymer
0039-9140
Galanis, Panagiotis
4457b788-deef-4293-ab39-76f501b9529d
Katis, Ioannis
f92dfb8f-610d-4877-83f6-fd26a571df12
He, Peijun
2e303166-6aa5-4a09-b22e-440d96a54a9f
Iles, Alice
4c7e0b28-8a6e-442e-88ca-a06e6e1a453d
Kumar, Anto J.U.
202a7bb5-ef3b-4049-8749-3e4b91418c78
Eason, R.W.
e38684c3-d18c-41b9-a4aa-def67283b020
Sones, Collin
9de9d8ee-d394-46a5-80b7-e341c0eed0a8
Galanis, Panagiotis
4457b788-deef-4293-ab39-76f501b9529d
Katis, Ioannis
f92dfb8f-610d-4877-83f6-fd26a571df12
He, Peijun
2e303166-6aa5-4a09-b22e-440d96a54a9f
Iles, Alice
4c7e0b28-8a6e-442e-88ca-a06e6e1a453d
Kumar, Anto J.U.
202a7bb5-ef3b-4049-8749-3e4b91418c78
Eason, R.W.
e38684c3-d18c-41b9-a4aa-def67283b020
Sones, Collin
9de9d8ee-d394-46a5-80b7-e341c0eed0a8

Galanis, Panagiotis, Katis, Ioannis, He, Peijun, Iles, Alice, Kumar, Anto J.U., Eason, R.W. and Sones, Collin (2022) Laser-patterned paper-based flow-through filters and lateral flow immunoassays to enable the detection of C-reactive protein. Talanta, 238, [123056]. (doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2021.123056).

Record type: Article

Abstract

We report the use of a laser-based fabrication process in the creation of paper-based flow-through filters that when combined with a traditional lateral flow immunoassay provide an alternative pathway for the detection of a pre-determined analyte over a wide concentration range. The laser-patterned approach was used to create polymeric structures that alter the porosity of the paper to produce porous flow-through filters, with controllable levels of porosity. When located on the top of the front end of a lateral flow immunoassay the flow-through filters were shown to block particles (of known sizes of 200 nm, 500 nm, 1000 nm and 3000 nm) that exceed the effective pore size of the filter while allowing smaller particles to flow through onto a lateral flow immunoassay. The analyte detection is based on the use of a size-exclusive filter that retains a complex (~3 µm in size) formed by the binding of the target analyte with two antibodies each of which is tagged with different-sized labels (40 nm Aunanoparticles and 3 µm latex beads), and which is larger than the effective pore size of the filter. This method was tested for the detection of C-reactive protein in a broad concentration range from 10 ng/ml to 100,000 ng/ml with a limit-of-detection found at 13 ng/ml and unlike other reported methods used for analyte detection, with this technique we are able to counter the Hook effect which is a limiting factor in many lateral flow immunoassays.

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Accepted/In Press date: 7 November 2021
e-pub ahead of print date: 9 November 2021
Published date: 1 February 2022
Additional Information: Funding Information: The authors acknowledge the funding received via the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) via Grant Nos. EP/P025757/1 , EP/N004388/1 , EP/M027260/1 and EP/S003398/1 . The underpinning RDM data for this paper can be found at 10.5258/SOTON/D1758.
Keywords: CRP detection, Hook effect, Laser patterning, Paper-based device, Porous flow-through filter, Pre-polymer

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 452842
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/452842
ISSN: 0039-9140
PURE UUID: 2fe074a9-1b49-4c9c-85a3-81dcbe87d3fc
ORCID for Panagiotis Galanis: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2028-5803
ORCID for Ioannis Katis: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2016-557X
ORCID for R.W. Eason: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9704-2204

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Date deposited: 21 Dec 2021 17:53
Last modified: 28 Jun 2022 01:47

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Contributors

Author: Panagiotis Galanis ORCID iD
Author: Ioannis Katis ORCID iD
Author: Peijun He
Author: Alice Iles
Author: Anto J.U. Kumar
Author: R.W. Eason ORCID iD
Author: Collin Sones

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