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The Galaxy Activity, Torus and Outflow Survey (GATOS) I. ALMA images of dusty molecular tori in Seyfert galaxies

The Galaxy Activity, Torus and Outflow Survey (GATOS) I. ALMA images of dusty molecular tori in Seyfert galaxies
The Galaxy Activity, Torus and Outflow Survey (GATOS) I. ALMA images of dusty molecular tori in Seyfert galaxies

We present the first results of the Galaxy Activity, Torus, and Outflow Survey (GATOS), a project aimed at understanding the properties of the dusty molecular tori and their connection to the host galaxy in nearby Seyfert galaxies. Our project expands the range of active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosities and Eddington ratios covered by previous surveys of Seyferts conducted by the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), allowing us to study the gas feeding and feedback cycle in a combined sample of 19 Seyferts. We used ALMA to obtain new images of the emission of molecular gas and dust using the CO(3-2) and HCO+(4-3) lines as well as their underlying continuum emission at 870 μm with high spatial resolutions (0.1″ ∼ 7-13 pc) in the circumnuclear disks (CND) of ten nearby (D < 28 Mpc) Seyfert galaxies selected from an ultra-hard X-ray survey. Our new ALMA observations detect 870 μm continuum and CO line emission from spatially resolved disks located around the AGN in all the sources. The bulk of the 870 μm continuum flux can be accounted for by thermal emission from dust in the majority of the targets. For most of the sources, the disks show a preponderant orientation perpendicular to the AGN wind axes, as expected for dusty molecular tori. The median diameters and molecular gas masses of the tori are ∼42 pc and ∼6 × 105 M· , respectively. We also detected the emission of the 4-3 line of HCO+ in four GATOS targets. The order of magnitude differences found in the CO/HCO+ ratios within our combined sample point to a very different density radial stratification inside the dusty molecular tori of these Seyferts. We find a positive correlation between the line-of-sight gas column densities responsible for the absorption of X-rays and the molecular gas column densities derived from CO toward the AGN in our sources. Furthermore, the median values of both column densities are similar. This suggests that the neutral gas line-of-sight column densities of the dusty molecular tori imaged by ALMA significantly contribute to the obscuration of X-rays. The radial distributions of molecular gas in the CND of our combined sample show signs of nuclear-scale molecular gas deficits. We also detect molecular outflows in the sources that show the most extreme nuclear-scale gas deficits in our sample. These observations find for the first time supporting evidence that the imprint of AGN feedback is more extreme in higher luminosity and/or higher Eddington ratio Seyfert galaxies.

Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies, Galaxies: nuclei, Galaxies: evolution, Galaxies: ISM, Galaxies: active, Galaxies: Seyfert
0004-6361
García-Burillo, S.
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Alonso-Herrero, A.
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Ramos Almeida, C.
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González-Martín, O.
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Combes, F.
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Usero, A.
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Hönig, S.
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Hicks, E. K. S.
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Rosario, D.
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Boorman, P. G.
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Bunker, A. J.
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Díaz-Santos, T.
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Gandhi, P.
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García-Bernete, I.
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García-Lorenzo, B.
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Ichikawa, K.
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Imanishi, M.
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Izumi, T.
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Labiano, A.
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Ricci, C.
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Williamson, D.
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García-Burillo, S.
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Alonso-Herrero, A.
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Ramos Almeida, C.
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González-Martín, O.
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Combes, F.
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Usero, A.
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Hönig, S.
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Querejeta, M.
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Hicks, E. K. S.
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Hunt, L. K.
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Rosario, D.
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Boorman, P. G.
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Burtscher, L.
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Colina, L.
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Díaz-Santos, T.
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Gandhi, P.
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García-Lorenzo, B.
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Ichikawa, K.
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Imanishi, M.
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Izumi, T.
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Labiano, A.
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Packham, C.
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Pereira-Santaella, M.
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Ricci, C.
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Rigopoulou, D.
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Shimizu, T.
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Williamson, D.
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García-Burillo, S., Alonso-Herrero, A., Ramos Almeida, C., González-Martín, O., Combes, F., Usero, A., Hönig, S., Querejeta, M., Hicks, E. K. S., Hunt, L. K., Rosario, D., Boorman, P. G., Bunker, A. J., Burtscher, L., Colina, L., Díaz-Santos, T., Gandhi, P., García-Bernete, I., García-Lorenzo, B., Ichikawa, K., Imanishi, M., Izumi, T., Labiano, A., Levenson, N. A., López-Rodríguez, E., Packham, C., Pereira-Santaella, M., Ricci, C., Rigopoulou, D., Rouan, D., Shimizu, T., Stalevski, M., Wada, K. and Williamson, D. (2021) The Galaxy Activity, Torus and Outflow Survey (GATOS) I. ALMA images of dusty molecular tori in Seyfert galaxies. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 652, [A98]. (doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202141075).

Record type: Article

Abstract

We present the first results of the Galaxy Activity, Torus, and Outflow Survey (GATOS), a project aimed at understanding the properties of the dusty molecular tori and their connection to the host galaxy in nearby Seyfert galaxies. Our project expands the range of active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosities and Eddington ratios covered by previous surveys of Seyferts conducted by the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), allowing us to study the gas feeding and feedback cycle in a combined sample of 19 Seyferts. We used ALMA to obtain new images of the emission of molecular gas and dust using the CO(3-2) and HCO+(4-3) lines as well as their underlying continuum emission at 870 μm with high spatial resolutions (0.1″ ∼ 7-13 pc) in the circumnuclear disks (CND) of ten nearby (D < 28 Mpc) Seyfert galaxies selected from an ultra-hard X-ray survey. Our new ALMA observations detect 870 μm continuum and CO line emission from spatially resolved disks located around the AGN in all the sources. The bulk of the 870 μm continuum flux can be accounted for by thermal emission from dust in the majority of the targets. For most of the sources, the disks show a preponderant orientation perpendicular to the AGN wind axes, as expected for dusty molecular tori. The median diameters and molecular gas masses of the tori are ∼42 pc and ∼6 × 105 M· , respectively. We also detected the emission of the 4-3 line of HCO+ in four GATOS targets. The order of magnitude differences found in the CO/HCO+ ratios within our combined sample point to a very different density radial stratification inside the dusty molecular tori of these Seyferts. We find a positive correlation between the line-of-sight gas column densities responsible for the absorption of X-rays and the molecular gas column densities derived from CO toward the AGN in our sources. Furthermore, the median values of both column densities are similar. This suggests that the neutral gas line-of-sight column densities of the dusty molecular tori imaged by ALMA significantly contribute to the obscuration of X-rays. The radial distributions of molecular gas in the CND of our combined sample show signs of nuclear-scale molecular gas deficits. We also detect molecular outflows in the sources that show the most extreme nuclear-scale gas deficits in our sample. These observations find for the first time supporting evidence that the imprint of AGN feedback is more extreme in higher luminosity and/or higher Eddington ratio Seyfert galaxies.

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Submitted date: 1 April 2021
Accepted/In Press date: 22 June 2021
e-pub ahead of print date: 17 August 2021
Published date: August 2021
Keywords: Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies, Galaxies: nuclei, Galaxies: evolution, Galaxies: ISM, Galaxies: active, Galaxies: Seyfert

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 453808
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/453808
ISSN: 0004-6361
PURE UUID: b10c6104-bf52-44a8-befe-eade0221deb4
ORCID for P. G. Boorman: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9379-4716
ORCID for P. Gandhi: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3105-2615
ORCID for D. Williamson: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-5168-7979

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Date deposited: 24 Jan 2022 17:53
Last modified: 25 Jan 2022 02:45

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Contributors

Author: S. García-Burillo
Author: A. Alonso-Herrero
Author: C. Ramos Almeida
Author: O. González-Martín
Author: F. Combes
Author: A. Usero
Author: S. Hönig
Author: M. Querejeta
Author: E. K. S. Hicks
Author: L. K. Hunt
Author: D. Rosario
Author: P. G. Boorman ORCID iD
Author: A. J. Bunker
Author: L. Burtscher
Author: L. Colina
Author: T. Díaz-Santos
Author: P. Gandhi ORCID iD
Author: I. García-Bernete
Author: B. García-Lorenzo
Author: K. Ichikawa
Author: M. Imanishi
Author: T. Izumi
Author: A. Labiano
Author: N. A. Levenson
Author: E. López-Rodríguez
Author: C. Packham
Author: M. Pereira-Santaella
Author: C. Ricci
Author: D. Rigopoulou
Author: D. Rouan
Author: T. Shimizu
Author: M. Stalevski
Author: K. Wada
Author: D. Williamson ORCID iD

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