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The Galaxy Activity, Torus and Outflow Survey (GATOS): II. Torus and polar dust emission in nearby Seyfert galaxies

The Galaxy Activity, Torus and Outflow Survey (GATOS): II. Torus and polar dust emission in nearby Seyfert galaxies
The Galaxy Activity, Torus and Outflow Survey (GATOS): II. Torus and polar dust emission in nearby Seyfert galaxies

We compare high angular resolution mid-infrared (mid-IR) and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) far-infrared (far-IR) images of twelve nearby (median 21 Mpc) Seyfert galaxies selected from the Galaxy Activity, Torus, and Outflow Survey (GATOS). The mid-IR unresolved emission contributes more than 60% of the nuclear (diameters of 1.5″ ∼ 150 pc) emission in most galaxies. By contrast, the ALMA 870  μm continuum emission is mostlyresolved with a median diameter of 42 pc and typically along the equatorial direction of the torus (Paper I). The Eddington ratios and nuclear hydrogen column densities (NH) of half the sample are favorable to launching polar and/or equatorial dusty winds, according to numerical simulations. Six of these show mid-IR extended emission approximately in the polar direction as traced by the narrow line region and perpendicular to the ALMA emission. In a few galaxies, the nuclear NH might be too high to uplift large quantities of dusty material along the polar direction. Five galaxies have low NH and/or Eddington ratios and thus polar dusty winds are not likely. We generated new radiative transfer CAT3D-WIND disk+wind models and model images at 8, 12, and 700  μm. We tailored these models to the properties of the GATOS Seyferts in this work. At low wind-to-disk cloud ratios, the far-IR model images have disk-and ring-like morphologies. The characteristic "X"-shape associated with dusty winds is seen better in the far-IR at intermediate-high inclinations for the extended-wind configurations. In most of the explored models, the mid-IR emission mainly comes from the inner part of the disk and cone. Extended biconical and one-sided polar mid-IR emission is seen in extended-wind configurations and high wind-to-disk cloud ratios. When convolved to the typical angular resolution of our observations, the CAT3D-WIND model images reproduce qualitative aspects of the observed mid-and far-IR morphologies. However, low to intermediate values of the wind-to-disk ratio are required to account for the observed large fractions of unresolved mid-IR emission in our sample. This work and Paper I provide observational support for the torus+wind scenario. The wind component is more relevant at high Eddington ratios and/or active galactic nucleus luminosities, and polar dust emission is predicted at nuclear column densities of up to ∼1024 cm-2. The torus or disk component, on the other hand, prevails at low luminosities and/or Eddington ratios.

Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies, Galaxies: ISM, Galaxies: Seyfert, Infrared: galaxies, Submillimeter: galaxies
0004-6361
Alonso-Herrero, A.
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García-Burillo, S.
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Hoenig, S. F.
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García-Bernete, I.
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Ramos Almeida, C.
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González-Martín, O.
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López-Rodríguez, E.
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Boorman, P. G.
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Bunker, A. J.
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Burtscher, L.
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Combes, F.
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Díaz-Santos, T.
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Gandhi, P.
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García-Lorenzo, B.
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Hicks, E. K. S.
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Hunt, L. K.
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Ichikawa, K.
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Imanishi, M.
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Izumi, T.
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Labiano, A.
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Levenson, N. A.
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Packham, C.
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Pereira-Santaella, M.
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Ricci, C.
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Rigopoulou, D.
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Rosario, D. J.
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Rouan, D.
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Shimizu, T.
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Stalevski, M.
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Wada, K.
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Williamson, D.
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Alonso-Herrero, A.
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García-Burillo, S.
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Hoenig, S. F.
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García-Bernete, I.
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Ramos Almeida, C.
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González-Martín, O.
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López-Rodríguez, E.
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Boorman, P. G.
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Bunker, A. J.
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Burtscher, L.
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Combes, F.
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Díaz-Santos, T.
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Gandhi, P.
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García-Lorenzo, B.
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Hicks, E. K. S.
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Hunt, L. K.
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Ichikawa, K.
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Imanishi, M.
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Izumi, T.
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Labiano, A.
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Levenson, N. A.
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Packham, C.
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Pereira-Santaella, M.
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Ricci, C.
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Rigopoulou, D.
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Rosario, D. J.
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Rouan, D.
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Shimizu, T.
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Stalevski, M.
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Wada, K.
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Williamson, D.
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Alonso-Herrero, A., García-Burillo, S., Hoenig, S. F., García-Bernete, I., Ramos Almeida, C., González-Martín, O., López-Rodríguez, E., Boorman, P. G., Bunker, A. J., Burtscher, L., Combes, F., Díaz-Santos, T., Gandhi, P., García-Lorenzo, B., Hicks, E. K. S., Hunt, L. K., Ichikawa, K., Imanishi, M., Izumi, T., Labiano, A., Levenson, N. A., Packham, C., Pereira-Santaella, M., Ricci, C., Rigopoulou, D., Rosario, D. J., Rouan, D., Shimizu, T., Stalevski, M., Wada, K. and Williamson, D. (2021) The Galaxy Activity, Torus and Outflow Survey (GATOS): II. Torus and polar dust emission in nearby Seyfert galaxies. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 652, [A99]. (doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202141219).

Record type: Article

Abstract

We compare high angular resolution mid-infrared (mid-IR) and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) far-infrared (far-IR) images of twelve nearby (median 21 Mpc) Seyfert galaxies selected from the Galaxy Activity, Torus, and Outflow Survey (GATOS). The mid-IR unresolved emission contributes more than 60% of the nuclear (diameters of 1.5″ ∼ 150 pc) emission in most galaxies. By contrast, the ALMA 870  μm continuum emission is mostlyresolved with a median diameter of 42 pc and typically along the equatorial direction of the torus (Paper I). The Eddington ratios and nuclear hydrogen column densities (NH) of half the sample are favorable to launching polar and/or equatorial dusty winds, according to numerical simulations. Six of these show mid-IR extended emission approximately in the polar direction as traced by the narrow line region and perpendicular to the ALMA emission. In a few galaxies, the nuclear NH might be too high to uplift large quantities of dusty material along the polar direction. Five galaxies have low NH and/or Eddington ratios and thus polar dusty winds are not likely. We generated new radiative transfer CAT3D-WIND disk+wind models and model images at 8, 12, and 700  μm. We tailored these models to the properties of the GATOS Seyferts in this work. At low wind-to-disk cloud ratios, the far-IR model images have disk-and ring-like morphologies. The characteristic "X"-shape associated with dusty winds is seen better in the far-IR at intermediate-high inclinations for the extended-wind configurations. In most of the explored models, the mid-IR emission mainly comes from the inner part of the disk and cone. Extended biconical and one-sided polar mid-IR emission is seen in extended-wind configurations and high wind-to-disk cloud ratios. When convolved to the typical angular resolution of our observations, the CAT3D-WIND model images reproduce qualitative aspects of the observed mid-and far-IR morphologies. However, low to intermediate values of the wind-to-disk ratio are required to account for the observed large fractions of unresolved mid-IR emission in our sample. This work and Paper I provide observational support for the torus+wind scenario. The wind component is more relevant at high Eddington ratios and/or active galactic nucleus luminosities, and polar dust emission is predicted at nuclear column densities of up to ∼1024 cm-2. The torus or disk component, on the other hand, prevails at low luminosities and/or Eddington ratios.

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Accepted/In Press date: 30 June 2021
e-pub ahead of print date: 17 August 2021
Published date: August 2021
Keywords: Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies, Galaxies: ISM, Galaxies: Seyfert, Infrared: galaxies, Submillimeter: galaxies

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 453809
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/453809
ISSN: 0004-6361
PURE UUID: 8e051840-a7e8-4bdc-a88b-1ef02910b492
ORCID for P. G. Boorman: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9379-4716
ORCID for P. Gandhi: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3105-2615
ORCID for D. Williamson: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-5168-7979

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Date deposited: 24 Jan 2022 17:53
Last modified: 25 Jan 2022 02:45

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Contributors

Author: A. Alonso-Herrero
Author: S. García-Burillo
Author: S. F. Hoenig
Author: I. García-Bernete
Author: C. Ramos Almeida
Author: O. González-Martín
Author: E. López-Rodríguez
Author: P. G. Boorman ORCID iD
Author: A. J. Bunker
Author: L. Burtscher
Author: F. Combes
Author: T. Díaz-Santos
Author: P. Gandhi ORCID iD
Author: B. García-Lorenzo
Author: E. K. S. Hicks
Author: L. K. Hunt
Author: K. Ichikawa
Author: M. Imanishi
Author: T. Izumi
Author: A. Labiano
Author: N. A. Levenson
Author: C. Packham
Author: M. Pereira-Santaella
Author: C. Ricci
Author: D. Rigopoulou
Author: D. J. Rosario
Author: D. Rouan
Author: T. Shimizu
Author: M. Stalevski
Author: K. Wada
Author: D. Williamson ORCID iD

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