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Regional variations in diet in England

Regional variations in diet in England
Regional variations in diet in England
Despite countless studies and interventions globally, sub-optimal diet continues to account for more death and disease than physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption and smoking combined. Although the relationship between unhealthy diets and chronic diseases is a well-established fact globally, very few studies have truly investigated possible differences in dietary patterns across and within the regions of England. Research in this area has tended to focus on childhood obesity, the individual determinants of dietary choice, geographical access to healthy food choices, and general public health promotion campaigns such as ‘5-A-Day’. However, rather less attention has been placed on how diets vary geographically, beyond generally negative assessments of the ‘Scottish diet’. This project aimed to contribute to the literature by examining the extent to which fruit and vegetable consumption and dietary patterns vary at the regional and sub-regional level amongst persons aged 16-64 years in England.
Data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS), 2008-2016 and the Health Survey for England (HSE), 2008-2016 were used to explore whether ‘regional diets’ are evident within England and to uncover small area level variations in diet. Two-way cross-classified multi-level modelling was used to model and explore the effect of region on fruit and vegetable consumption. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was used to derive dietary patterns at the national level and for each of the nine regions of England. Thereafter, two-way cross-classified multi-level modelling was used to examine the effect of region on dietary patterns identified within the national sample. Small area microsimulation, specifically the Iterative Proportional Fitting (IPF) method, was used to explore possible variations in fruit and vegetable consumption across populations in Middle Layer Super Output Areas (MSOAs) in England. Overall, this project found no statistically significant differences in fruit and vegetable consumption and dietary patterns across the regions of England, but more variation across smaller areas (MSOAs), particularly in and around urban centres within the North of England and Midlands. It is expected that the results obtained from this project will contribute to ongoing research by enhancing the understanding of the dietary challenges facing the UK and more specifically, England. The findings presented could help to inform social and health policy as well as more localised interventions (such as voucher schemes and subsidies) aimed at improving the diets of individuals, especially among more disadvantaged groups.
University of Southampton
Campbell, Monique, Alayne
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Campbell, Monique, Alayne
8e43da40-9608-4105-a629-98ce994e8832
Smith, Dianna
e859097c-f9f5-4fd0-8b07-59218648e726
Vogel, Christina, Augusta
708e7fda-a6d3-4362-b5f8-69fe2b3e9d7b
Moon, Graham
68cffc4d-72c1-41e9-b1fa-1570c5f3a0b4
Baird, Janis
f4bf2039-6118-436f-ab69-df8b4d17f824

Campbell, Monique, Alayne (2022) Regional variations in diet in England. University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis, 262pp.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

Despite countless studies and interventions globally, sub-optimal diet continues to account for more death and disease than physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption and smoking combined. Although the relationship between unhealthy diets and chronic diseases is a well-established fact globally, very few studies have truly investigated possible differences in dietary patterns across and within the regions of England. Research in this area has tended to focus on childhood obesity, the individual determinants of dietary choice, geographical access to healthy food choices, and general public health promotion campaigns such as ‘5-A-Day’. However, rather less attention has been placed on how diets vary geographically, beyond generally negative assessments of the ‘Scottish diet’. This project aimed to contribute to the literature by examining the extent to which fruit and vegetable consumption and dietary patterns vary at the regional and sub-regional level amongst persons aged 16-64 years in England.
Data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS), 2008-2016 and the Health Survey for England (HSE), 2008-2016 were used to explore whether ‘regional diets’ are evident within England and to uncover small area level variations in diet. Two-way cross-classified multi-level modelling was used to model and explore the effect of region on fruit and vegetable consumption. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was used to derive dietary patterns at the national level and for each of the nine regions of England. Thereafter, two-way cross-classified multi-level modelling was used to examine the effect of region on dietary patterns identified within the national sample. Small area microsimulation, specifically the Iterative Proportional Fitting (IPF) method, was used to explore possible variations in fruit and vegetable consumption across populations in Middle Layer Super Output Areas (MSOAs) in England. Overall, this project found no statistically significant differences in fruit and vegetable consumption and dietary patterns across the regions of England, but more variation across smaller areas (MSOAs), particularly in and around urban centres within the North of England and Midlands. It is expected that the results obtained from this project will contribute to ongoing research by enhancing the understanding of the dietary challenges facing the UK and more specifically, England. The findings presented could help to inform social and health policy as well as more localised interventions (such as voucher schemes and subsidies) aimed at improving the diets of individuals, especially among more disadvantaged groups.

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Published date: 2022

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 455619
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/455619
PURE UUID: c032999c-6683-4688-ad30-075ac546ebba
ORCID for Dianna Smith: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-0650-6606
ORCID for Graham Moon: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-7256-8397
ORCID for Janis Baird: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4039-4361

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 29 Mar 2022 16:45
Last modified: 23 Jul 2022 02:11

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Contributors

Thesis advisor: Dianna Smith ORCID iD
Thesis advisor: Christina, Augusta Vogel
Thesis advisor: Graham Moon ORCID iD
Thesis advisor: Janis Baird ORCID iD

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