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Ethnic differences in kidney function in childhood: the Born in Bradford Cohort Renal Study [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]

Ethnic differences in kidney function in childhood: the Born in Bradford Cohort Renal Study [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]
Ethnic differences in kidney function in childhood: the Born in Bradford Cohort Renal Study [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]
Background: Endstage kidney failure rates are higher in South Asians than in White Europeans. Low birth weight is associated with adult chronic kidney disease and is more common in South Asians. Foetal kidney size was smaller in South Asians in the Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort. As part of BiB follow up, we aimed to investigate if there were ethnic differences in kidney function and blood pressure in early childhood and whether this was mediated by foetal kidney size. Methods: Serum creatinine, cystatin C, urea, and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR), protein to creatinine ratio (PCR) and retinol binding protein (RBP) were analysed in blood and urine samples from those who participated in the BiB follow-up at 7-11 years. Ethnicity was categorised by parental self-report as White European and South Asian. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using Schwartz, and cystatin C Zappitelli and Filler equations. Linear regression was used to examine the association between ethnicity and eGFR, PCR and blood pressure. Results: 1591 children provided blood (n=1403) or urine (n=625) samples. Mean eGFR was 92 ml/min/1.73m2 (standard deviation (SD) 9) using Schwartz (n=1156) and 94 (SD 11) using Zappitelli (n=1257). CKD prevalence was rare (1 with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2, 14 (2.4%) had raised ACR (>2.5 mg/mmol in boys/3.5 mg/mmol in girls). Diastolic blood pressure was higher in South Asian children (difference 2.04 mmHg, 95% CI 0.99 to 3.10) but was not significant in adjusted analysis. There was no evidence of association in adjusted models between ethnicity and any eGFR or urinary measure at this age. Conclusions: There was no evidence of significant ethnic differences in kidney function at pre-pubertal age despite differences in kidney volume at birth. Longitudinal follow-up is required to track ethnic patterns in kidney function and blood pressure as children develop through puberty.
2398-502X
Ziauddeen, Nida
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Jeffrey, Robin F
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Waiblinger, Dagmar
28327ba6-e905-4b50-a687-77b2def03cb8
Fraser, Simon
135884b6-8737-4e8a-a98c-5d803ac7a2dc
Alwan, Nisreen
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Yuen, Ho
b1df4c57-0c2a-44ac-ab40-22b88e8effe8
Azad, Rafaq
1a2b2e38-9f4b-4884-a275-d008f1687c2a
Mason, Dan
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Wright, John
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Coward, Richard J.M.
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Roderick, Paul
dbb3cd11-4c51-4844-982b-0eb30ad5085a
Ziauddeen, Nida
8b233a4a-9763-410b-90c7-df5c7d1a26e4
Jeffrey, Robin F
c4f9801f-f804-4880-a9a0-39e5c76dbf34
Waiblinger, Dagmar
28327ba6-e905-4b50-a687-77b2def03cb8
Fraser, Simon
135884b6-8737-4e8a-a98c-5d803ac7a2dc
Alwan, Nisreen
0d37b320-f325-4ed3-ba51-0fe2866d5382
Yuen, Ho
b1df4c57-0c2a-44ac-ab40-22b88e8effe8
Azad, Rafaq
1a2b2e38-9f4b-4884-a275-d008f1687c2a
Mason, Dan
19d00e77-284d-4dcb-ae9e-0c78c768c384
Wright, John
326fe250-c4f9-4cbe-8a6d-778b22e30d8f
Coward, Richard J.M.
4556d390-a7a9-4a8b-afe9-ad29d5bc4e05
Roderick, Paul
dbb3cd11-4c51-4844-982b-0eb30ad5085a

Ziauddeen, Nida, Jeffrey, Robin F, Waiblinger, Dagmar, Fraser, Simon, Alwan, Nisreen, Yuen, Ho, Azad, Rafaq, Mason, Dan, Wright, John, Coward, Richard J.M. and Roderick, Paul (2022) Ethnic differences in kidney function in childhood: the Born in Bradford Cohort Renal Study [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]. Wellcome Open Research, 7 (112).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: Endstage kidney failure rates are higher in South Asians than in White Europeans. Low birth weight is associated with adult chronic kidney disease and is more common in South Asians. Foetal kidney size was smaller in South Asians in the Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort. As part of BiB follow up, we aimed to investigate if there were ethnic differences in kidney function and blood pressure in early childhood and whether this was mediated by foetal kidney size. Methods: Serum creatinine, cystatin C, urea, and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR), protein to creatinine ratio (PCR) and retinol binding protein (RBP) were analysed in blood and urine samples from those who participated in the BiB follow-up at 7-11 years. Ethnicity was categorised by parental self-report as White European and South Asian. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using Schwartz, and cystatin C Zappitelli and Filler equations. Linear regression was used to examine the association between ethnicity and eGFR, PCR and blood pressure. Results: 1591 children provided blood (n=1403) or urine (n=625) samples. Mean eGFR was 92 ml/min/1.73m2 (standard deviation (SD) 9) using Schwartz (n=1156) and 94 (SD 11) using Zappitelli (n=1257). CKD prevalence was rare (1 with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2, 14 (2.4%) had raised ACR (>2.5 mg/mmol in boys/3.5 mg/mmol in girls). Diastolic blood pressure was higher in South Asian children (difference 2.04 mmHg, 95% CI 0.99 to 3.10) but was not significant in adjusted analysis. There was no evidence of association in adjusted models between ethnicity and any eGFR or urinary measure at this age. Conclusions: There was no evidence of significant ethnic differences in kidney function at pre-pubertal age despite differences in kidney volume at birth. Longitudinal follow-up is required to track ethnic patterns in kidney function and blood pressure as children develop through puberty.

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Published date: 25 March 2022

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Local EPrints ID: 456394
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/456394
ISSN: 2398-502X
PURE UUID: 21c3fa4c-ac48-410e-8d2d-c8c612cf306e
ORCID for Nida Ziauddeen: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-8964-5029
ORCID for Simon Fraser: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4172-4406
ORCID for Nisreen Alwan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4134-8463
ORCID for Paul Roderick: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9475-6850

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Date deposited: 27 Apr 2022 15:43
Last modified: 28 Apr 2022 02:28

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Contributors

Author: Nida Ziauddeen ORCID iD
Author: Robin F Jeffrey
Author: Dagmar Waiblinger
Author: Simon Fraser ORCID iD
Author: Nisreen Alwan ORCID iD
Author: Ho Yuen
Author: Rafaq Azad
Author: Dan Mason
Author: John Wright
Author: Richard J.M. Coward
Author: Paul Roderick ORCID iD

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