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Micronutrients to support vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy

Micronutrients to support vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy
Micronutrients to support vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy
The world has entered the third year of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Vaccination is the primary public health strategy to protect against infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in addition to other measures, such as mask wearing and social distancing. Vaccination has reduced COVID-19 severity and mortality dramatically. Nevertheless, incidence globally remains high, and certain populations are still at risk for severe outcomes. Additional strategies to support immunity, including potentially enhancing the response to vaccination, are needed. Many vitamins and trace minerals have recognized immunomodulatory actions, and their status and/or supplementation have been reported to correspond to the incidence and severity of infection. Furthermore, a variety of observational and some interventional studies report that adequate micronutrient status or micronutrient supplementation is associated with enhanced vaccine responses, including to COVID-19 vaccination. Such data suggest that micronutrient supplementation may hold the potential to improve vaccine immunogenicity and effectiveness, although additional interventional studies to further strengthen the existing evidence are needed. Positive findings from such research could have important implications for global public health, since deficiencies in several micronutrients that support immune function are prevalent in numerous settings, and supplementation can be implemented safely and inexpensively.

COVID-19 pandemic, micronutrients, vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy
2076-393X
Calder, Philip
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Berger, Mette M.
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Gombart, Adrian F.
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McComsey, Grace A.
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Martineau, Adrian R.
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Eggersdorfer, Manfred
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Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6
Berger, Mette M.
ecd2e464-f4f3-41b5-b706-d134be6f2491
Gombart, Adrian F.
373b4c54-4d6e-4abd-a48f-4f4dfea5177f
McComsey, Grace A.
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Martineau, Adrian R.
0d1ef840-513e-4d7c-9360-6660d8514673
Eggersdorfer, Manfred
567541b1-90ad-4da6-a3c3-209f41d8c4c0

Calder, Philip, Berger, Mette M., Gombart, Adrian F., McComsey, Grace A., Martineau, Adrian R. and Eggersdorfer, Manfred (2022) Micronutrients to support vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Vaccines, 10 (4), [568]. (doi:10.3390/vaccines10040568).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The world has entered the third year of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Vaccination is the primary public health strategy to protect against infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in addition to other measures, such as mask wearing and social distancing. Vaccination has reduced COVID-19 severity and mortality dramatically. Nevertheless, incidence globally remains high, and certain populations are still at risk for severe outcomes. Additional strategies to support immunity, including potentially enhancing the response to vaccination, are needed. Many vitamins and trace minerals have recognized immunomodulatory actions, and their status and/or supplementation have been reported to correspond to the incidence and severity of infection. Furthermore, a variety of observational and some interventional studies report that adequate micronutrient status or micronutrient supplementation is associated with enhanced vaccine responses, including to COVID-19 vaccination. Such data suggest that micronutrient supplementation may hold the potential to improve vaccine immunogenicity and effectiveness, although additional interventional studies to further strengthen the existing evidence are needed. Positive findings from such research could have important implications for global public health, since deficiencies in several micronutrients that support immune function are prevalent in numerous settings, and supplementation can be implemented safely and inexpensively.

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Accepted/In Press date: 3 April 2022
e-pub ahead of print date: 6 April 2022
Published date: 6 April 2022
Additional Information: Funding Information: Conflicts of Interest: P.C.C. has research funding from Bayer Consumer Care; acts as an advisor/consultant to BASF AS, DSM, Cargill, Smartfish, Nutrileads, Bayer Consumer Care, and GSK Consumer Healthcare; has received reimbursement for travel and/or speaking from Danone/Nutricia, Fresenius Kabi, Baxter, GSK Consumer Healthcare, Abbott, Smartfish, Biogredia and the California Walnut Commission; and is Past President and member of the Board of Directors of the European Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. M.M.B. receives honoraria for lectures from Baxter, B. Braun, DSM, Fresenius Kabi, Nestle, and Nutricia; and has research funding from ESPEN, Foundation Nutrition 2000, and Swiss Foundation for Research. GM has served as scientific consultant for Gilead, GSK/ViiV, Merck, Theratechnologies, Jannsen; and has received funding support from Gilead, ViiV, Tetraphase, Roche, Genentech, Vanda, Astellas, Merck. M.E. acts is member of the Scientific Board of PM International, President of the Gesellschaft für angewandte Vitaminforschung and consults nutrition and supplement companies on request. A.F.G. has received research funding from Bayer Consumer Care; has acted as an advisor/consultant for GSK, DSM, Kellogg’s and The Coca-Cola Company; and has received reimbursement for travel and/or speaking from Bayer Consumer Care. A.R.M. declares receipt of funding in the last 36 months to support vitamin D research from the following companies who manufacture or sell vitamin D supplements: Pharma Nord Ltd., DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Thornton & Ross Ltd. and Hyphens Pharma Ltd. A.R.M. also declares support for attending meetings from the following companies who manufacture or sell vitamin D supplements: Pharma Nord Ltd. and Abiogen Pharma Ltd. A.R.M. also declares participation on the Data and Safety Monitoring Board for the VITALITY trial (Vitamin D for Adolescents with HIV to reduce musculoskeletal morbidity and immunopathology). A.R.M. also declares unpaid work as a Program Committee member for the Vitamin D Workshop. A.R.M. also declares receipt of vitamin D capsules for clinical trial use from Pharma Nord Ltd., Synergy Biologics Ltd. and Cytoplan Ltd. Publisher Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, micronutrients, vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 456563
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/456563
ISSN: 2076-393X
PURE UUID: 1d55f462-9314-4e62-b28f-22a4483419af
ORCID for Philip Calder: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6038-710X

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 05 May 2022 16:34
Last modified: 24 Jan 2023 02:35

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Contributors

Author: Philip Calder ORCID iD
Author: Mette M. Berger
Author: Adrian F. Gombart
Author: Grace A. McComsey
Author: Adrian R. Martineau
Author: Manfred Eggersdorfer

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