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An Eddington ratio-driven origin for the LX - M-* relation in quiescent and star-forming active galaxies

An Eddington ratio-driven origin for the LX - M-* relation in quiescent and star-forming active galaxies
An Eddington ratio-driven origin for the LX - M-* relation in quiescent and star-forming active galaxies
A mild correlation exists in active galaxies between the mean black hole accretion, as traced by the mean X-ray luminosity <LX> and the host galaxy stellar mass M*, characterised by a normalization steadily decreasing with cosmic time and lower in more quiescent galaxies. We create comprehensive semi-empirical mock catalogues of active black holes to pin down which parameters control the shape and evolution of the <LX> − M* relation of X-ray-detected active galaxies. We find that the normalization of the <LX> − M* relation is largely independent of the fraction of active galaxies (the duty cycle), but strongly dependent on the mean Eddington ratio, when adopting a constant underlying MBH − M* relation as suggested by observational studies. The data point to a decreasing mean Eddington ratio with cosmic time and with galaxy stellar mass at fixed redshift. Our data can be reproduced by black holes and galaxies evolving on similar MBH − M* relations but progressively decreasing their average Eddington ratios, mean X-ray luminosities, and specific star formation rates, when moving from the starburst to the quiescent phase. Models consistent with the observed <LX> − M* relation and independent measurements of the mean Eddington ratios are characterised by MBH − M* relations lower than those derived from dynamically measured local black holes. Our results point to the <LX> − M* relation as a powerful diagnostic to: (1) probe black hole–galaxy scaling relations and the level of accretion on to black holes; (2) efficiently break the degeneracies between duty cycles and accretion rates in cosmological models of black holes.
0035-8711
1185 - 1195
Shankar, F
b10c91e4-85cd-4394-a18a-d4f049fd9cdb
Marsden, Christopher
ccd1ecc8-3eb4-4699-a87e-0bfba0dd40b0
Carraro, Rosamaria
d5508ba5-4663-465d-9961-3107e93a0750
Allevato, Viola
cced4e40-6a45-4261-911a-442d99a6aeb7
Rodighiero, Giulia
31a67294-3818-4206-b28c-45c8ea2a1ed4
Arévalo, Patricia
5b7f863d-e261-455d-9ae2-c1953600ceb3
Delvecchio, Ivan
ea1737d1-7c07-45ec-af39-2dc735cf2568
Lapi, Andrea
126b5f87-60fa-4a57-8b84-802d5ffb1f17
Shankar, F
b10c91e4-85cd-4394-a18a-d4f049fd9cdb
Marsden, Christopher
ccd1ecc8-3eb4-4699-a87e-0bfba0dd40b0
Carraro, Rosamaria
d5508ba5-4663-465d-9961-3107e93a0750
Allevato, Viola
cced4e40-6a45-4261-911a-442d99a6aeb7
Rodighiero, Giulia
31a67294-3818-4206-b28c-45c8ea2a1ed4
Arévalo, Patricia
5b7f863d-e261-455d-9ae2-c1953600ceb3
Delvecchio, Ivan
ea1737d1-7c07-45ec-af39-2dc735cf2568
Lapi, Andrea
126b5f87-60fa-4a57-8b84-802d5ffb1f17

Shankar, F, Marsden, Christopher, Carraro, Rosamaria, Allevato, Viola, Rodighiero, Giulia, Arévalo, Patricia, Delvecchio, Ivan and Lapi, Andrea (2022) An Eddington ratio-driven origin for the LX - M-* relation in quiescent and star-forming active galaxies. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 512 (1), 1185 - 1195. (doi:10.1093/mnras/stac441).

Record type: Article

Abstract

A mild correlation exists in active galaxies between the mean black hole accretion, as traced by the mean X-ray luminosity <LX> and the host galaxy stellar mass M*, characterised by a normalization steadily decreasing with cosmic time and lower in more quiescent galaxies. We create comprehensive semi-empirical mock catalogues of active black holes to pin down which parameters control the shape and evolution of the <LX> − M* relation of X-ray-detected active galaxies. We find that the normalization of the <LX> − M* relation is largely independent of the fraction of active galaxies (the duty cycle), but strongly dependent on the mean Eddington ratio, when adopting a constant underlying MBH − M* relation as suggested by observational studies. The data point to a decreasing mean Eddington ratio with cosmic time and with galaxy stellar mass at fixed redshift. Our data can be reproduced by black holes and galaxies evolving on similar MBH − M* relations but progressively decreasing their average Eddington ratios, mean X-ray luminosities, and specific star formation rates, when moving from the starburst to the quiescent phase. Models consistent with the observed <LX> − M* relation and independent measurements of the mean Eddington ratios are characterised by MBH − M* relations lower than those derived from dynamically measured local black holes. Our results point to the <LX> − M* relation as a powerful diagnostic to: (1) probe black hole–galaxy scaling relations and the level of accretion on to black holes; (2) efficiently break the degeneracies between duty cycles and accretion rates in cosmological models of black holes.

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Accepted/In Press date: 2 February 2022
Published date: 22 February 2022
Additional Information: arXiv:2202.07661

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Local EPrints ID: 456811
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/456811
ISSN: 0035-8711
PURE UUID: d0679e1c-ce32-4b24-a16b-f185c5dda118

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Date deposited: 11 May 2022 16:54
Last modified: 11 May 2022 16:56

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Contributors

Author: F Shankar
Author: Christopher Marsden
Author: Rosamaria Carraro
Author: Viola Allevato
Author: Giulia Rodighiero
Author: Patricia Arévalo
Author: Ivan Delvecchio
Author: Andrea Lapi

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