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Low-power supralinear photocurrent generation via excited state fusion in single-component nanostructured organic photodetectors

Low-power supralinear photocurrent generation via excited state fusion in single-component nanostructured organic photodetectors
Low-power supralinear photocurrent generation via excited state fusion in single-component nanostructured organic photodetectors
The integration of triplet–triplet annihilation (TTA) components as electrically and optically active elements in vertically-configured photoactive device architectures is a challenging task to achieve. Herein we present a simple methodology for incorporating a photon absorbing layer of the (2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-porphyrinato)platinum(II) (PtOEP) metallorganic complex, as a self-TTA annihilator medium in a sandwich-like photodiode device structure. At low power illumination, the PtOEP photodiode exhibits photocurrent generation via the fusion of optically induced PtOEP excited states and it develops an open-circuit voltage (VOC) as high as 1.15 V. The structural and spectroscopic characterization of the nanostructured PtOEP photoactive layer in combination with electronic structure calculations identify PtOEP dimer species as the annihilating excited state responsible for the formation of charges. The participation of the fusion process in the mechanism of charge photogeneration manifests in the supralinear dependence of the short-circuit current density (JSC) on the incoming photoexcitation intensity, both when incoherent and coherent light are used for illuminating the PtOEP diodes. The photoresponse of the PtOEP device allows for highly selective and sensitive photodetection within the 500–560 nm narrow spectral range. At short-circuit conditions a power-law is observed in the dependence of the device responsivity on fluence. The observed response of the PtOEP photodiodes reveals a hitherto neglected mechanism of photocurrent generation in single-component organic electronic devices that is facilitated by TTA reactions. These findings pave the way towards the fabrication of next-generation electro-optical switches, ultrasensitive organic photodetectors, and TTA-sensitized solar cells with vertically-configured device structure.
2050-7526
7575-7585
Antoniou, Giannis
4edc82d4-be71-4662-9b47-8e174b9e0f9c
Yuan, Peisen
de510a3f-3795-457f-ba0c-30c29db2dad5
Koutsokeras, Loukas
27797e62-eefb-4057-82d7-d9280dfedc07
Athanasopoulos, Stavros
733caabc-00b7-42d2-a4ee-7b7cc93fef73
Fazzi, Daniele
40156d8e-e7a6-4ed4-bb58-5205952c2152
Panidi, Ioulianna
c98ba267-2648-4fc7-804d-f4cb95bf2484
Georgiadou, Dimitra
84977176-3678-4fb3-a3dd-2044a49c853b
Prodromakis, Themistoklis
d58c9c10-9d25-4d22-b155-06c8437acfbf
Keivanidis, Panagiotis
7a324b25-d090-494a-b59f-3d431f711cd2
Antoniou, Giannis
4edc82d4-be71-4662-9b47-8e174b9e0f9c
Yuan, Peisen
de510a3f-3795-457f-ba0c-30c29db2dad5
Koutsokeras, Loukas
27797e62-eefb-4057-82d7-d9280dfedc07
Athanasopoulos, Stavros
733caabc-00b7-42d2-a4ee-7b7cc93fef73
Fazzi, Daniele
40156d8e-e7a6-4ed4-bb58-5205952c2152
Panidi, Ioulianna
c98ba267-2648-4fc7-804d-f4cb95bf2484
Georgiadou, Dimitra
84977176-3678-4fb3-a3dd-2044a49c853b
Prodromakis, Themistoklis
d58c9c10-9d25-4d22-b155-06c8437acfbf
Keivanidis, Panagiotis
7a324b25-d090-494a-b59f-3d431f711cd2

Antoniou, Giannis, Yuan, Peisen, Koutsokeras, Loukas, Athanasopoulos, Stavros, Fazzi, Daniele, Panidi, Ioulianna, Georgiadou, Dimitra, Prodromakis, Themistoklis and Keivanidis, Panagiotis (2022) Low-power supralinear photocurrent generation via excited state fusion in single-component nanostructured organic photodetectors. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 10 (19), 7575-7585. (doi:10.1039/D2TC00662F).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The integration of triplet–triplet annihilation (TTA) components as electrically and optically active elements in vertically-configured photoactive device architectures is a challenging task to achieve. Herein we present a simple methodology for incorporating a photon absorbing layer of the (2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-porphyrinato)platinum(II) (PtOEP) metallorganic complex, as a self-TTA annihilator medium in a sandwich-like photodiode device structure. At low power illumination, the PtOEP photodiode exhibits photocurrent generation via the fusion of optically induced PtOEP excited states and it develops an open-circuit voltage (VOC) as high as 1.15 V. The structural and spectroscopic characterization of the nanostructured PtOEP photoactive layer in combination with electronic structure calculations identify PtOEP dimer species as the annihilating excited state responsible for the formation of charges. The participation of the fusion process in the mechanism of charge photogeneration manifests in the supralinear dependence of the short-circuit current density (JSC) on the incoming photoexcitation intensity, both when incoherent and coherent light are used for illuminating the PtOEP diodes. The photoresponse of the PtOEP device allows for highly selective and sensitive photodetection within the 500–560 nm narrow spectral range. At short-circuit conditions a power-law is observed in the dependence of the device responsivity on fluence. The observed response of the PtOEP photodiodes reveals a hitherto neglected mechanism of photocurrent generation in single-component organic electronic devices that is facilitated by TTA reactions. These findings pave the way towards the fabrication of next-generation electro-optical switches, ultrasensitive organic photodetectors, and TTA-sensitized solar cells with vertically-configured device structure.

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Accepted/In Press date: 19 April 2022
e-pub ahead of print date: 19 April 2022
Published date: 19 April 2022
Additional Information: Funding Information: This work was co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through project EXCELLENCE/1216/0010 ‘Low Photon-Energy Up-Conversion induced Sensitized Photocurrent Generation in Organic Photodiodes’ of the Research and Innovation Foundation, and was supported by Comunidad de Madrid (Spain) – multiannual agreement with UC3M (“Excelencia para el Profesorado Universitario” – EPUC3M14) – Fifth regional research plan 2016–2020 and by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MICINN) through project RTI2018-101020-B-100. Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Royal Society of Chemistry Copyright: Copyright 2022 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 456939
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/456939
ISSN: 2050-7526
PURE UUID: 7ce811d8-9e86-4d58-9730-b7ab0f21a7b2
ORCID for Dimitra Georgiadou: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2620-3346
ORCID for Themistoklis Prodromakis: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6267-6909

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Date deposited: 17 May 2022 17:00
Last modified: 07 Jun 2022 01:59

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Contributors

Author: Giannis Antoniou
Author: Peisen Yuan
Author: Loukas Koutsokeras
Author: Stavros Athanasopoulos
Author: Daniele Fazzi
Author: Ioulianna Panidi
Author: Themistoklis Prodromakis ORCID iD
Author: Panagiotis Keivanidis

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