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White etching bands formation mechanisms due to rolling contact fatigue

White etching bands formation mechanisms due to rolling contact fatigue
White etching bands formation mechanisms due to rolling contact fatigue
Subsurface micro-structural changes such as dark etching region (DER) and white etching bands (WEB) which develop in bearing steels due to cyclic stresses in rolling contacts, have been studied for decades and a number of theoretical models have been proposed to explain their formation mechanisms and predict their initiation. In WEB investigations, studies have generally focused only on one subtype of WEB, e.g. low angle bands (LAB) or high angle bands (HAB), while the most recent semi-empirical model has shown to be able to predict the formation of both LAB and HAB based on observed growth patterns of ferrite grains. Following from the modelling study, this paper presents a detailed mechanistic study, showing the evolution of ferrite grains (equiaxed and elongated grains) and carbide structures in WEB formed in inner rings of angular contact ball bearings at their different life stages through SEM, EBSD and nano-indentation analysis. The results strongly suggest both LAB and HAB initiate as equiaxed ferrite grains due to recrystallization arising from energy build-up in the initial microstructure that later develops to elongated ferrite grains through a grain rotation/coalescence recovery mechanism induced from plastic deformation. The formation of carbide structures in LAB is associated with the transformation of equiaxed to elongated grains, where carbides nucleate at the edges of the elongated grains rather than at the equiaxed grain band edges as being previously suggested in literature. The newly proposed formation mechanism links LAB and HAB based on experimental findings from detailed inspection of gradual microstructural alteration sequence of LAB and HAB in rolling contact fatigue (RCF) tested bearings.
1359-6454
Ellaithy, Mostafa
8d378e75-e155-44b9-b4da-a7ff11d774db
Wang, Ling
c50767b1-7474-4094-9b06-4fe64e9fe362
Harvey, Terence
3b94322b-18da-4de8-b1af-56d202677e04
Schwedt, Alexander
d3c68d66-55d0-43a4-8cbf-c75b5aa27df4
Vierneusel, Bernd
e9806523-72e4-4e2a-88b6-6724d1154401
Meyer, Joachim
ef14b3a0-c8ad-4fdc-9188-d74e9dc634cc
Ellaithy, Mostafa
8d378e75-e155-44b9-b4da-a7ff11d774db
Wang, Ling
c50767b1-7474-4094-9b06-4fe64e9fe362
Harvey, Terence
3b94322b-18da-4de8-b1af-56d202677e04
Schwedt, Alexander
d3c68d66-55d0-43a4-8cbf-c75b5aa27df4
Vierneusel, Bernd
e9806523-72e4-4e2a-88b6-6724d1154401
Meyer, Joachim
ef14b3a0-c8ad-4fdc-9188-d74e9dc634cc

Ellaithy, Mostafa, Wang, Ling, Harvey, Terence, Schwedt, Alexander, Vierneusel, Bernd and Meyer, Joachim (2022) White etching bands formation mechanisms due to rolling contact fatigue. Acta Materialia, 232, [117932]. (doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2022.117932).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Subsurface micro-structural changes such as dark etching region (DER) and white etching bands (WEB) which develop in bearing steels due to cyclic stresses in rolling contacts, have been studied for decades and a number of theoretical models have been proposed to explain their formation mechanisms and predict their initiation. In WEB investigations, studies have generally focused only on one subtype of WEB, e.g. low angle bands (LAB) or high angle bands (HAB), while the most recent semi-empirical model has shown to be able to predict the formation of both LAB and HAB based on observed growth patterns of ferrite grains. Following from the modelling study, this paper presents a detailed mechanistic study, showing the evolution of ferrite grains (equiaxed and elongated grains) and carbide structures in WEB formed in inner rings of angular contact ball bearings at their different life stages through SEM, EBSD and nano-indentation analysis. The results strongly suggest both LAB and HAB initiate as equiaxed ferrite grains due to recrystallization arising from energy build-up in the initial microstructure that later develops to elongated ferrite grains through a grain rotation/coalescence recovery mechanism induced from plastic deformation. The formation of carbide structures in LAB is associated with the transformation of equiaxed to elongated grains, where carbides nucleate at the edges of the elongated grains rather than at the equiaxed grain band edges as being previously suggested in literature. The newly proposed formation mechanism links LAB and HAB based on experimental findings from detailed inspection of gradual microstructural alteration sequence of LAB and HAB in rolling contact fatigue (RCF) tested bearings.

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Accepted/In Press date: 6 April 2022
e-pub ahead of print date: 19 April 2022
Published date: 26 April 2022

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 457164
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/457164
ISSN: 1359-6454
PURE UUID: 52d30ee2-1635-4f2f-ac66-9633a46cecb6
ORCID for Mostafa Ellaithy: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-0703-0435
ORCID for Ling Wang: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2894-6784

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Date deposited: 25 May 2022 16:52
Last modified: 10 Aug 2022 02:04

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Contributors

Author: Mostafa Ellaithy ORCID iD
Author: Ling Wang ORCID iD
Author: Terence Harvey
Author: Alexander Schwedt
Author: Bernd Vierneusel
Author: Joachim Meyer

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