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Omega-3 fatty acids and metabolic partitioning of fatty acids within the liver in the context of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Omega-3 fatty acids and metabolic partitioning of fatty acids within the liver in the context of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Omega-3 fatty acids and metabolic partitioning of fatty acids within the liver in the context of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Purpose of review: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most prevalent form of liver disease globally, affecting about 25% of the world’s adult population. It is more common in those living with obesity, where it may affect as many as 80% of individuals. The aim of this article is to describe recent human studies evaluating the influence of omega-3 fatty acids on de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and hepatic fatty acid partitioning between incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAGs) and β-oxidation, to discuss the relevance of these effects in the context of NAFLD, and to provide an overview of the mechanisms that might be involved.

Recent findings: the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA decrease hepatic DNL and partition fatty acids away from TAG synthesis and towards β-oxidation. EPA and DHA affect multiple hepatic transcription factors resulting in down-regulation of the DNL pathway and upregulation of β-oxidation. The net result is decreased accumulation of hepatic TAG and lowering of circulating TAG concentrations. Human trials demonstrate that EPA and DHA can decrease liver fat in patients with NAFLD.

Summary: increased intake of EPA and DHA may reduce the likelihood of hepatic TAG accumulation and could be used to reduce liver fat in patients with NAFLD.



1363-1950
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6

Calder, Philip (2022) Omega-3 fatty acids and metabolic partitioning of fatty acids within the liver in the context of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. (In Press)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Purpose of review: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most prevalent form of liver disease globally, affecting about 25% of the world’s adult population. It is more common in those living with obesity, where it may affect as many as 80% of individuals. The aim of this article is to describe recent human studies evaluating the influence of omega-3 fatty acids on de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and hepatic fatty acid partitioning between incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAGs) and β-oxidation, to discuss the relevance of these effects in the context of NAFLD, and to provide an overview of the mechanisms that might be involved.

Recent findings: the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA decrease hepatic DNL and partition fatty acids away from TAG synthesis and towards β-oxidation. EPA and DHA affect multiple hepatic transcription factors resulting in down-regulation of the DNL pathway and upregulation of β-oxidation. The net result is decreased accumulation of hepatic TAG and lowering of circulating TAG concentrations. Human trials demonstrate that EPA and DHA can decrease liver fat in patients with NAFLD.

Summary: increased intake of EPA and DHA may reduce the likelihood of hepatic TAG accumulation and could be used to reduce liver fat in patients with NAFLD.



Text
Calder_COCN_July 2022_Update_Revised - Accepted Manuscript
Restricted to Repository staff only until 29 April 2023.
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Text
Figure 1_Revised - Accepted Manuscript
Restricted to Repository staff only until 29 April 2023.
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 29 April 2022

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 457189
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/457189
ISSN: 1363-1950
PURE UUID: 8ed471b5-339d-4eef-b7cc-fa121e242045
ORCID for Philip Calder: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6038-710X

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 26 May 2022 16:35
Last modified: 24 Jul 2022 01:34

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