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Gallium and titanium diffused optical waveguide devices in sapphire

Gallium and titanium diffused optical waveguide devices in sapphire
Gallium and titanium diffused optical waveguide devices in sapphire
This thesis describes new methods to realise an integrated Ti:Sapphire laser using thermal ionic diffusion. Passive and active waveguides were fabricated by thermal diffusion of gallium and titanium ions in sapphire.

Theoretical simulations were established which describe the potential of planar Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers and intracavity wavelength selection devices. A diffusion study of gallium, titanium and gallium/titanium co-doping is presented; the diffusion coefficient of gallium ions in sapphire was calculated to be 3.3x10-17 m2s-1 at 16000 °C and the diffusion coefficient of titanium ions in sapphire at 16000 °C was found to be 1.7x10-15 m2s-1.

Planar Ga:Sapphire passive waveguides were realised by thermal diffusion of gallium ions. The refractive index of sapphire at 800nm is approximately 1.766 and the index change induced by gallium doping was found to be up to 6x10-3 and the mode sizes of the waveguides were as small as 1µm at 488nm. A fabrication procedure based on SU-8 photolithography and ion beam milling was developed for micromachining the surface of sapphire. Using this fabrication technique Ga:Sapphire ridge waveguides were fabricated by diffusion of gallium and exhibited mode sizes as small as 2µm at 633nm. Using the same fabrication technique the realisation of the first Ti-diffused sapphire ridge waveguide lasers is reported. Finally, the fabrication of sapphire optical circuits using titanium and gallium co-doping is described and fluorescence characterisation of these waveguides is given.
Apostolopoulos, Vasilis
8a898740-4c71-4040-a577-9b9d70530b4d
Apostolopoulos, Vasilis
8a898740-4c71-4040-a577-9b9d70530b4d
Wilkinson, James
73483cf3-d9f2-4688-9b09-1c84257884ca

Apostolopoulos, Vasilis (2003) Gallium and titanium diffused optical waveguide devices in sapphire. University of Southampton, Optoelectronic Research Center, Doctoral Thesis, 181pp.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

This thesis describes new methods to realise an integrated Ti:Sapphire laser using thermal ionic diffusion. Passive and active waveguides were fabricated by thermal diffusion of gallium and titanium ions in sapphire.

Theoretical simulations were established which describe the potential of planar Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers and intracavity wavelength selection devices. A diffusion study of gallium, titanium and gallium/titanium co-doping is presented; the diffusion coefficient of gallium ions in sapphire was calculated to be 3.3x10-17 m2s-1 at 16000 °C and the diffusion coefficient of titanium ions in sapphire at 16000 °C was found to be 1.7x10-15 m2s-1.

Planar Ga:Sapphire passive waveguides were realised by thermal diffusion of gallium ions. The refractive index of sapphire at 800nm is approximately 1.766 and the index change induced by gallium doping was found to be up to 6x10-3 and the mode sizes of the waveguides were as small as 1µm at 488nm. A fabrication procedure based on SU-8 photolithography and ion beam milling was developed for micromachining the surface of sapphire. Using this fabrication technique Ga:Sapphire ridge waveguides were fabricated by diffusion of gallium and exhibited mode sizes as small as 2µm at 633nm. Using the same fabrication technique the realisation of the first Ti-diffused sapphire ridge waveguide lasers is reported. Finally, the fabrication of sapphire optical circuits using titanium and gallium co-doping is described and fluorescence characterisation of these waveguides is given.

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More information

Published date: June 2003
Organisations: University of Southampton, Optoelectronics Research Centre

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 46107
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/46107
PURE UUID: ec08c3bb-b922-4b90-a27e-2ffbb431a9df
ORCID for Vasilis Apostolopoulos: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3733-2191
ORCID for James Wilkinson: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4712-1697

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 23 May 2007
Last modified: 18 May 2019 00:33

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