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Adult education development and political change in Tanzania : 1961-2002

Adult education development and political change in Tanzania : 1961-2002
Adult education development and political change in Tanzania : 1961-2002

This study attempts to relate the development of adult education and political change in post-uhuru era and contemporary Tanzania from 1961 to 2002. The author asserts that adult education in post-independence and contemporary Tanzania has developed through three major political and educational periods i.e. the evolution period from I 9 6I the revolutionary period from 1970 to 1 9 8 6; and the consolidationary period from 1987 to 2002. The author contends that the speed and success of adult education development in Tanzania, in each historical period, has depended, and will depend in the future, on four principles: (i) the political will of the Party (TANU and now CCM) which makes national policies; (ii) the commitment of the Union Government of Tanzania which is responsible for the provision of resources (manpower, finance, materials and equipment); (iii) the free and voluntary participation of the adult population in the various adult education programmes; and (iv) the international support by several donor agencies including those within the United Nations System like UNDP and UNESCO in terms of expertise and resources. The author further contends that the success and rapid development of adult education in Tanzania has chiefly depended on Tanzanian clearly defined political ideology of "ujamaa" and its philosophy of "kujitegemea" which is the springboard of all the national policies, including that of adult education, of Tanzania. This has been the key and the essence of the dramatic success in the field of adult education in Tanzania over the last twenty years. Part One of the study is the Evolutionary Period (1961-1969). It examines and analyses how the first eight years of immediate uhuru years Tanzania groped forward, in the dark, searching for its own ideology and national identity from the shadows of colonialism and capitalism. This period, covered in four chapters (1 to H) also discusses some of the major national policies with a bearing on adult education, particularly those made following the pronouncement of the ARUSHA DECLARATION on February 5, 1967. Part Two is the Revolutionary Period (1970-1986) under which adult education was given a national priority as a vehicle for individual and national development. The dramatic success story of adult education in Tanzania is examined and analysed in four chapters (5-8), in particular, the role and functions of the DAE in the ME is clearly asserted especially in the provision of the functional literacy, the post literacy and the FDCs. In addition, the role and functions of some major adult providers like the Party, the Cooperative Movement and the lAE are examined in relation to the national policies. Part Three is the Consolidationary Period (1987-2002) which is covered in two chapters (9 and 10). It focusses on the national policies made by CCM and its Union Government and the DAE for the future development of adult education in the 1990s and the twenty-first century. The author believes that the study practitioner's point of view, towards further understanding of what Tanzania has done, is doing, and will do, in the field of adult education within its political and administrative framework. a positive contribution, insider and from the is

University of Southampton
Kalinjuma, Alfred Mukulasi Kyaruzi
Kalinjuma, Alfred Mukulasi Kyaruzi

Kalinjuma, Alfred Mukulasi Kyaruzi (1989) Adult education development and political change in Tanzania : 1961-2002. University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

This study attempts to relate the development of adult education and political change in post-uhuru era and contemporary Tanzania from 1961 to 2002. The author asserts that adult education in post-independence and contemporary Tanzania has developed through three major political and educational periods i.e. the evolution period from I 9 6I the revolutionary period from 1970 to 1 9 8 6; and the consolidationary period from 1987 to 2002. The author contends that the speed and success of adult education development in Tanzania, in each historical period, has depended, and will depend in the future, on four principles: (i) the political will of the Party (TANU and now CCM) which makes national policies; (ii) the commitment of the Union Government of Tanzania which is responsible for the provision of resources (manpower, finance, materials and equipment); (iii) the free and voluntary participation of the adult population in the various adult education programmes; and (iv) the international support by several donor agencies including those within the United Nations System like UNDP and UNESCO in terms of expertise and resources. The author further contends that the success and rapid development of adult education in Tanzania has chiefly depended on Tanzanian clearly defined political ideology of "ujamaa" and its philosophy of "kujitegemea" which is the springboard of all the national policies, including that of adult education, of Tanzania. This has been the key and the essence of the dramatic success in the field of adult education in Tanzania over the last twenty years. Part One of the study is the Evolutionary Period (1961-1969). It examines and analyses how the first eight years of immediate uhuru years Tanzania groped forward, in the dark, searching for its own ideology and national identity from the shadows of colonialism and capitalism. This period, covered in four chapters (1 to H) also discusses some of the major national policies with a bearing on adult education, particularly those made following the pronouncement of the ARUSHA DECLARATION on February 5, 1967. Part Two is the Revolutionary Period (1970-1986) under which adult education was given a national priority as a vehicle for individual and national development. The dramatic success story of adult education in Tanzania is examined and analysed in four chapters (5-8), in particular, the role and functions of the DAE in the ME is clearly asserted especially in the provision of the functional literacy, the post literacy and the FDCs. In addition, the role and functions of some major adult providers like the Party, the Cooperative Movement and the lAE are examined in relation to the national policies. Part Three is the Consolidationary Period (1987-2002) which is covered in two chapters (9 and 10). It focusses on the national policies made by CCM and its Union Government and the DAE for the future development of adult education in the 1990s and the twenty-first century. The author believes that the study practitioner's point of view, towards further understanding of what Tanzania has done, is doing, and will do, in the field of adult education within its political and administrative framework. a positive contribution, insider and from the is

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Published date: 1989

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 461945
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/461945
PURE UUID: 4a5998de-f82c-4435-84b9-c531a517ff6b

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Date deposited: 04 Jul 2022 18:59
Last modified: 04 Jul 2022 20:30

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Contributors

Author: Alfred Mukulasi Kyaruzi Kalinjuma

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