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Synthesis, Structure and Electrochemistry of positive Insertion materials for rechargeable Lithium Batteries

Synthesis, Structure and Electrochemistry of positive Insertion materials for rechargeable Lithium Batteries
Synthesis, Structure and Electrochemistry of positive Insertion materials for rechargeable Lithium Batteries

Lithium copper oxides LixCu2O4 (x = 2,3,4) have been synthesised for lithium battery application using solid state and solution reactions under various conditions. Li2CuO2 (Immm) has been prepared in air at 800oC for 10-15 h from a stoichiometric mixture of copper oxide and lithium hydroxide. Synthesis using high pressure oxygen (250 bar, 4 h, 700oC) and hydrothermal (1.5 kbar, 10 h, 600oC) was used for the formation of mixed-valence cuprate Li3Cu2O4 (C2/m) and the isostructural Li2NaCu2 O4 (250 bar in O2, 4 h, 700oC) from simple oxides. The latter has been characterised using powder neutron diffraction and crystallises in the space group C2/m (a = 10.2733(2), b = 2.80324 (3), c = 7.58532(9) A and β = 119.6903 (8)o). The lithium ions occupy the tetrahedral positions whereas the sodium ions are found to be exclusively in octahedral environment. LiCuO2 can not be obtained directly; it was synthesised by chemical lithium extraction of the lithium rich oxide, Li3Cu3O4 using Br2 in CH3CN. The latter, was found to crystallise in the space group C2/m. The structures of all the lithium copper oxides prepared are composed of one dimensional infinite chains of edge-sharing CuO4 square planes coordinated to lithium in tetrahedral (Li2CuO2, Li3Cu2O4) and octahedral (LiCuO2, Li3Cu2O4) positions.

Electrochemical testing was carried out in a two-electrode cell using composite electrodes containing the oxide materials, carbon black to enhance the electronic conductivity and polytetrafluoroethylene as Teflon® binder. Lithium foil has been used as reference and counter electrode and 1 M LiPF6 in EC-DMC as the electrolyte. The slow galvanostatic charging of Li2CuO2 until 4.5 V yields charge specific capacity of 320 mAhg-1 (theoretical capacity of 490 mAhg-1) at a cycling rate of 11 mAg-1 which is followed by a large specific discharge capacity of 250 mAhg-1 (0.8 Li+) distributed mostly between 2 and 3 V. Application as additive material with a positive electrode LiMn2O4 was found to be successful as it compensates the initial loss of specific charge capacity due to the formation of the passivation on the negative electrode. The slow galvanostatic cycling of Li3Cu2O4 (theoretical capacity of 380 mAhg-1) between 1.6 and 4.5 V yields a charge density of 160 mAhg-1 (0.6 Li+) at a cycling rate of 10 mAhg-1. The results for Li2NaCu2O4 indicates the presence of sodium that may disrupt the lithium ion pathway. LiCuO2 (theoretical capacity of 263 mAhg-1) provides between 1 and 4.3 V a specific capacity of 500 mAhg-1 with an average voltage of 2.5 V. This discharge is thought to involve the formation of Cu1 or CuII in this material.

University of Southampton
Raekelboom, Emmanuelle Angeline
Raekelboom, Emmanuelle Angeline

Raekelboom, Emmanuelle Angeline (2002) Synthesis, Structure and Electrochemistry of positive Insertion materials for rechargeable Lithium Batteries. University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

Lithium copper oxides LixCu2O4 (x = 2,3,4) have been synthesised for lithium battery application using solid state and solution reactions under various conditions. Li2CuO2 (Immm) has been prepared in air at 800oC for 10-15 h from a stoichiometric mixture of copper oxide and lithium hydroxide. Synthesis using high pressure oxygen (250 bar, 4 h, 700oC) and hydrothermal (1.5 kbar, 10 h, 600oC) was used for the formation of mixed-valence cuprate Li3Cu2O4 (C2/m) and the isostructural Li2NaCu2 O4 (250 bar in O2, 4 h, 700oC) from simple oxides. The latter has been characterised using powder neutron diffraction and crystallises in the space group C2/m (a = 10.2733(2), b = 2.80324 (3), c = 7.58532(9) A and β = 119.6903 (8)o). The lithium ions occupy the tetrahedral positions whereas the sodium ions are found to be exclusively in octahedral environment. LiCuO2 can not be obtained directly; it was synthesised by chemical lithium extraction of the lithium rich oxide, Li3Cu3O4 using Br2 in CH3CN. The latter, was found to crystallise in the space group C2/m. The structures of all the lithium copper oxides prepared are composed of one dimensional infinite chains of edge-sharing CuO4 square planes coordinated to lithium in tetrahedral (Li2CuO2, Li3Cu2O4) and octahedral (LiCuO2, Li3Cu2O4) positions.

Electrochemical testing was carried out in a two-electrode cell using composite electrodes containing the oxide materials, carbon black to enhance the electronic conductivity and polytetrafluoroethylene as Teflon® binder. Lithium foil has been used as reference and counter electrode and 1 M LiPF6 in EC-DMC as the electrolyte. The slow galvanostatic charging of Li2CuO2 until 4.5 V yields charge specific capacity of 320 mAhg-1 (theoretical capacity of 490 mAhg-1) at a cycling rate of 11 mAg-1 which is followed by a large specific discharge capacity of 250 mAhg-1 (0.8 Li+) distributed mostly between 2 and 3 V. Application as additive material with a positive electrode LiMn2O4 was found to be successful as it compensates the initial loss of specific charge capacity due to the formation of the passivation on the negative electrode. The slow galvanostatic cycling of Li3Cu2O4 (theoretical capacity of 380 mAhg-1) between 1.6 and 4.5 V yields a charge density of 160 mAhg-1 (0.6 Li+) at a cycling rate of 10 mAhg-1. The results for Li2NaCu2O4 indicates the presence of sodium that may disrupt the lithium ion pathway. LiCuO2 (theoretical capacity of 263 mAhg-1) provides between 1 and 4.3 V a specific capacity of 500 mAhg-1 with an average voltage of 2.5 V. This discharge is thought to involve the formation of Cu1 or CuII in this material.

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Published date: 2002

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Local EPrints ID: 464576
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/464576
PURE UUID: b757a089-e769-4e8b-a55d-c3085bd06ce6

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Date deposited: 04 Jul 2022 23:48
Last modified: 05 Jul 2022 02:30

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Author: Emmanuelle Angeline Raekelboom

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