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The importance of self-efficacy and negative affect for neurofeedback success for central neuropathic pain after a spinal cord injury

The importance of self-efficacy and negative affect for neurofeedback success for central neuropathic pain after a spinal cord injury
The importance of self-efficacy and negative affect for neurofeedback success for central neuropathic pain after a spinal cord injury

EEG-based neurofeedback uses mental behaviours (MB) to enable voluntary self-modulation of brain activity, and has potential to relieve central neuropathic pain (CNP) after a spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to understand neurofeedback learning and the relationship between MB and neurofeedback success. Twenty-five non-CNP participants and ten CNP participants received neurofeedback training (reinforcing 9–12 Hz; suppressing 4–8 Hz and 20–30 Hz) on four visits. Participants were interviewed about the MB they used after each visit. Questionnaires examined the following factors: self-efficacy, locus of control, motivation, and workload of neurofeedback. MB were grouped into mental strategies (a goal-directed mental action) and affect (emotional experience during neurofeedback). Successful non-CNP participants significantly used more imagination-related MS and reported more negative affect compared to successful CNP participants. However, no mental strategy was clearly associated with neurofeedback success. There was some association between the lack of success and negative affect. Self-efficacy was moderately correlated with neurofeedback success (r = < 0.587, p = < 0.020), whereas locus of control, motivation, and workload had low, non-significant correlations (r < 0.300, p > 0.05). Affect may be more important than mental strategies for a successful neurofeedback performance. Self-efficacy was associated with neurofeedback success, suggesting that increasing confidence in one’s neurofeedback abilities may improve neurofeedback performance.

2045-2322
Anil, Krithika
2b2690a5-37f4-4b3e-9b4c-df721d12a2f3
Demain, Sara
09b1124d-750a-4eb1-90c7-91f5f222fc31
Burridge, Jane
0110e9ea-0884-4982-a003-cb6307f38f64
Simpson, David
53674880-f381-4cc9-8505-6a97eeac3c2a
Taylor, Julian
104798e7-b83d-41ac-b053-dd8ab4f6c59c
Cotter, Imogen
05794925-9f67-48e7-9c0f-77fbab2d5bfe
Vuckovic, Aleksandra
38b2dbed-989f-49ed-87ec-12eee9c08c47
Anil, Krithika
2b2690a5-37f4-4b3e-9b4c-df721d12a2f3
Demain, Sara
09b1124d-750a-4eb1-90c7-91f5f222fc31
Burridge, Jane
0110e9ea-0884-4982-a003-cb6307f38f64
Simpson, David
53674880-f381-4cc9-8505-6a97eeac3c2a
Taylor, Julian
104798e7-b83d-41ac-b053-dd8ab4f6c59c
Cotter, Imogen
05794925-9f67-48e7-9c0f-77fbab2d5bfe
Vuckovic, Aleksandra
38b2dbed-989f-49ed-87ec-12eee9c08c47

Anil, Krithika, Demain, Sara, Burridge, Jane, Simpson, David, Taylor, Julian, Cotter, Imogen and Vuckovic, Aleksandra (2022) The importance of self-efficacy and negative affect for neurofeedback success for central neuropathic pain after a spinal cord injury. Scientific Reports, 12 (1), [10949]. (doi:10.1038/s41598-022-15213-7).

Record type: Article

Abstract

EEG-based neurofeedback uses mental behaviours (MB) to enable voluntary self-modulation of brain activity, and has potential to relieve central neuropathic pain (CNP) after a spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to understand neurofeedback learning and the relationship between MB and neurofeedback success. Twenty-five non-CNP participants and ten CNP participants received neurofeedback training (reinforcing 9–12 Hz; suppressing 4–8 Hz and 20–30 Hz) on four visits. Participants were interviewed about the MB they used after each visit. Questionnaires examined the following factors: self-efficacy, locus of control, motivation, and workload of neurofeedback. MB were grouped into mental strategies (a goal-directed mental action) and affect (emotional experience during neurofeedback). Successful non-CNP participants significantly used more imagination-related MS and reported more negative affect compared to successful CNP participants. However, no mental strategy was clearly associated with neurofeedback success. There was some association between the lack of success and negative affect. Self-efficacy was moderately correlated with neurofeedback success (r = < 0.587, p = < 0.020), whereas locus of control, motivation, and workload had low, non-significant correlations (r < 0.300, p > 0.05). Affect may be more important than mental strategies for a successful neurofeedback performance. Self-efficacy was associated with neurofeedback success, suggesting that increasing confidence in one’s neurofeedback abilities may improve neurofeedback performance.

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Accepted/In Press date: 19 April 2022
Published date: 29 June 2022
Additional Information: © 2022. The Author(s).

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 468151
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/468151
ISSN: 2045-2322
PURE UUID: 3f3f1bff-209f-43f9-8099-2c162af7db27
ORCID for Krithika Anil: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-8027-1665
ORCID for Jane Burridge: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3497-6725
ORCID for David Simpson: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9072-5088

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Date deposited: 04 Aug 2022 16:31
Last modified: 05 Aug 2022 01:38

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Contributors

Author: Krithika Anil ORCID iD
Author: Sara Demain
Author: Jane Burridge ORCID iD
Author: David Simpson ORCID iD
Author: Julian Taylor
Author: Imogen Cotter
Author: Aleksandra Vuckovic

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