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History-dependent domain and skyrmion formation in 2D van der Waals magnet Fe3GeTe2

History-dependent domain and skyrmion formation in 2D van der Waals magnet Fe3GeTe2
History-dependent domain and skyrmion formation in 2D van der Waals magnet Fe3GeTe2
The discovery of two-dimensional magnets has initiated a new field of research, exploring both fundamental low-dimensional magnetism, and prospective spintronic applications. Recently, observations of magnetic skyrmions in the 2D ferromagnet Fe3GeTe2 (FGT) have been reported, introducing further application possibilities. However, controlling the exhibited magnetic state requires systematic knowledge of the history-dependence of the spin textures, which remains largely unexplored in 2D magnets. In this work, we utilise real-space imaging, and complementary simulations, to determine and explain the thickness-dependent magnetic phase diagrams of an exfoliated FGT flake, revealing a complex, history-dependent emergence of the uniformly magnetised, stripe domain and skyrmion states. The results show that the interplay of the dominant dipolar interaction and strongly temperature dependent out-of-plane anisotropy energy terms enables the selective stabilisation of all three states at zero field, and at a single temperature, while the Dzyaloshinksii-Moriya interaction must be present to realise the observed Néel-type domain walls. The findings open perspectives for 2D devices incorporating topological spin textures.
2041-1723
Birch, M. T.
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Powalla, L.
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Wintz, S.
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Hovorka, Ondrej
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Litzius, K.
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Loudon, J. C.
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Turnbull, L. A.
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Nehruji, Vanessa
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Son, K.
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Bubeck, C.
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Rauch, T. G.
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Weigand, M.
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Goering, E.
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Burghard, M.
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Schütz, G.
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Birch, M. T.
896b66cf-b711-4ffa-b13d-4cc025d026d3
Powalla, L.
ad9da12c-7dce-4c84-8b5b-619e3b4f3182
Wintz, S.
02bdcd49-da55-4651-929c-74176af93f5c
Hovorka, Ondrej
a12bd550-ad45-4963-aa26-dd81dd1609ee
Litzius, K.
86c33817-75da-4a46-bb52-3d74b9c38bcb
Loudon, J. C.
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Turnbull, L. A.
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Nehruji, Vanessa
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Son, K.
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Bubeck, C.
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Rauch, T. G.
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Weigand, M.
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Goering, E.
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Burghard, M.
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Schütz, G.
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Birch, M. T., Powalla, L., Wintz, S., Hovorka, Ondrej, Litzius, K., Loudon, J. C., Turnbull, L. A., Nehruji, Vanessa, Son, K., Bubeck, C., Rauch, T. G., Weigand, M., Goering, E., Burghard, M. and Schütz, G. (2022) History-dependent domain and skyrmion formation in 2D van der Waals magnet Fe3GeTe2. Nature Communications, 13 (3035), [3035]. (doi:10.1038/s41467-022-30740-7).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The discovery of two-dimensional magnets has initiated a new field of research, exploring both fundamental low-dimensional magnetism, and prospective spintronic applications. Recently, observations of magnetic skyrmions in the 2D ferromagnet Fe3GeTe2 (FGT) have been reported, introducing further application possibilities. However, controlling the exhibited magnetic state requires systematic knowledge of the history-dependence of the spin textures, which remains largely unexplored in 2D magnets. In this work, we utilise real-space imaging, and complementary simulations, to determine and explain the thickness-dependent magnetic phase diagrams of an exfoliated FGT flake, revealing a complex, history-dependent emergence of the uniformly magnetised, stripe domain and skyrmion states. The results show that the interplay of the dominant dipolar interaction and strongly temperature dependent out-of-plane anisotropy energy terms enables the selective stabilisation of all three states at zero field, and at a single temperature, while the Dzyaloshinksii-Moriya interaction must be present to realise the observed Néel-type domain walls. The findings open perspectives for 2D devices incorporating topological spin textures.

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Accepted/In Press date: 16 May 2022
Published date: 31 May 2022

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 468773
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/468773
ISSN: 2041-1723
PURE UUID: 405f417b-3db8-470d-89db-9a19853b2ada
ORCID for Ondrej Hovorka: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6707-4325

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Date deposited: 25 Aug 2022 17:01
Last modified: 27 Aug 2022 01:45

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Contributors

Author: M. T. Birch
Author: L. Powalla
Author: S. Wintz
Author: Ondrej Hovorka ORCID iD
Author: K. Litzius
Author: J. C. Loudon
Author: L. A. Turnbull
Author: Vanessa Nehruji
Author: K. Son
Author: C. Bubeck
Author: T. G. Rauch
Author: M. Weigand
Author: E. Goering
Author: M. Burghard
Author: G. Schütz

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