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Knowledge, attitude, and practices toward tuberculosis among hospital outpatients in Kabul, Afghanistan

Knowledge, attitude, and practices toward tuberculosis among hospital outpatients in Kabul, Afghanistan
Knowledge, attitude, and practices toward tuberculosis among hospital outpatients in Kabul, Afghanistan

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a high-burden respiratory infectious disease. There was a sharp decline in the number of confirmed TB cases during the pandemic; this is likely to be influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic response, with under-reporting due to resource diversion. There are typically 13,000 tuberculosis-associated deaths in Afghanistan annually, with significant problems posed by drug-resistant TB.

Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Afghanistan on Kabul residents who visited the adult outpatient departments of public hospitals for any health-related reason from 1st January to 20th March 2022. The study scored their knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) toward tuberculosis. The sample size was calculated using Epi-Info, and the minimum sample size was 385. The sampling method is chosen the non-probability convenient sampling for data gathering. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 28, and we used the Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square or fisher extract test, spearman correlations, and binary logistic regression model.

Results: Of 829 participants, 450 (54.3%) were males and 379 (45.7) females. The median age was 28 years, and 63.3% were married. Most participants were unemployed (75.5%), but 54% had a monthly income >3,000 Afghanis, indicating the reliance on family. By TB knowledge score, 727 (87.7%) participants had good knowledge, and 800 (96.5%) participants had a positive attitude toward treatment and control. Only 2 participants reported poor practices regarding prevention. Regarding the binary logistic regression, young age, being a male, belonging to the "1,000-3,000" Afghani monthly income category, and having a positive attitude were significant predictors of good TB knowledge (P-value = 0.009, 0.000, 0.003, and 0.009), respectively. A positive attitude was expected to have good knowledge 6.035 times more than a negative attitude (95% CI: 1.572-23.167).

Conclusion: The study findings highlighted that outpatients in Kabul had good knowledge, attitude, and practice toward TB. More studies are needed to highlight KAP in different Afghan populations, including in other parts of the country.

Adult, Afghanistan, COVID-19, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice, Hospitals, Humans, Male, Outpatients, Pandemics, Surveys and Questionnaires, Tuberculosis/epidemiology
2296-2565
Essar, Mohammad Yasir
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Rezayee, Khalid Jan
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Ahmad, Shoaib
380b93bc-d937-4e66-817e-4003d2b78951
Kamal, Manar Ahmed
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Nasery, Reshaduddin
e0ad0b25-5019-43d4-8326-aebdb66bdd58
Danishmand, Tamim Jan
7b1f3e26-2626-487e-83c5-0ba9fc01f5fd
Head, Michael
67ce0afc-2fc3-47f4-acf2-8794d27ce69c
Nemat, Arash
e1d40469-1613-429f-b6bf-7a070c1cc7ce
Essar, Mohammad Yasir
7ba803fe-3f4d-4021-a9f8-1eb7eba3fd24
Rezayee, Khalid Jan
e62e5fb0-df60-4dc1-a75e-d91ce11e009b
Ahmad, Shoaib
380b93bc-d937-4e66-817e-4003d2b78951
Kamal, Manar Ahmed
7d6255d2-4140-4344-9c83-cc29e9c796db
Nasery, Reshaduddin
e0ad0b25-5019-43d4-8326-aebdb66bdd58
Danishmand, Tamim Jan
7b1f3e26-2626-487e-83c5-0ba9fc01f5fd
Head, Michael
67ce0afc-2fc3-47f4-acf2-8794d27ce69c
Nemat, Arash
e1d40469-1613-429f-b6bf-7a070c1cc7ce

Essar, Mohammad Yasir, Rezayee, Khalid Jan, Ahmad, Shoaib, Kamal, Manar Ahmed, Nasery, Reshaduddin, Danishmand, Tamim Jan, Head, Michael and Nemat, Arash (2022) Knowledge, attitude, and practices toward tuberculosis among hospital outpatients in Kabul, Afghanistan. Frontiers in Public Health, 10, [933005]. (doi:10.3389/fpubh.2022.933005).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a high-burden respiratory infectious disease. There was a sharp decline in the number of confirmed TB cases during the pandemic; this is likely to be influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic response, with under-reporting due to resource diversion. There are typically 13,000 tuberculosis-associated deaths in Afghanistan annually, with significant problems posed by drug-resistant TB.

Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Afghanistan on Kabul residents who visited the adult outpatient departments of public hospitals for any health-related reason from 1st January to 20th March 2022. The study scored their knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) toward tuberculosis. The sample size was calculated using Epi-Info, and the minimum sample size was 385. The sampling method is chosen the non-probability convenient sampling for data gathering. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 28, and we used the Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square or fisher extract test, spearman correlations, and binary logistic regression model.

Results: Of 829 participants, 450 (54.3%) were males and 379 (45.7) females. The median age was 28 years, and 63.3% were married. Most participants were unemployed (75.5%), but 54% had a monthly income >3,000 Afghanis, indicating the reliance on family. By TB knowledge score, 727 (87.7%) participants had good knowledge, and 800 (96.5%) participants had a positive attitude toward treatment and control. Only 2 participants reported poor practices regarding prevention. Regarding the binary logistic regression, young age, being a male, belonging to the "1,000-3,000" Afghani monthly income category, and having a positive attitude were significant predictors of good TB knowledge (P-value = 0.009, 0.000, 0.003, and 0.009), respectively. A positive attitude was expected to have good knowledge 6.035 times more than a negative attitude (95% CI: 1.572-23.167).

Conclusion: The study findings highlighted that outpatients in Kabul had good knowledge, attitude, and practice toward TB. More studies are needed to highlight KAP in different Afghan populations, including in other parts of the country.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 20 June 2022
Published date: 11 July 2022
Additional Information: Copyright © 2022 Essar, Rezayee, Ahmad, Kamal, Nasery, Danishmand, Head and Nemat.
Keywords: Adult, Afghanistan, COVID-19, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice, Hospitals, Humans, Male, Outpatients, Pandemics, Surveys and Questionnaires, Tuberculosis/epidemiology

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 469022
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/469022
ISSN: 2296-2565
PURE UUID: 48fa88ba-f278-410a-b953-8954d1e98054
ORCID for Michael Head: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-1189-0531

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 05 Sep 2022 16:45
Last modified: 06 Sep 2022 01:46

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Contributors

Author: Mohammad Yasir Essar
Author: Khalid Jan Rezayee
Author: Shoaib Ahmad
Author: Manar Ahmed Kamal
Author: Reshaduddin Nasery
Author: Tamim Jan Danishmand
Author: Michael Head ORCID iD
Author: Arash Nemat

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