Bressloff, Neil W.
Parametric geometry exploration of the human carotid artery bifurcation
Journal of Biomechanics, 40, (11), . (doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2006.11.002).
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A parametric computational model of the human carotid artery bifurcation is employed to demonstrate that it is only necessary to simulate approximately one-half of a single heart pulse when performing a global exploration of the relationships between shear stress and changes in geometry. Using design of experiments and surface fitting techniques, a landscape is generated that graphically depicts these multi-dimensional relationships. Consequently, whilst finely resolved, grid and pulse independent results are traditionally demanded by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) community, this strategy demonstrates that it is possible to efficiently detect the relative impact of different geometry parameters, and to identify good and bad regions of the landscape by only simulating a fraction of a single pulse. Also, whereas in the past comparisons have been made between the distributions of appropriate shear stress metrics, such as average wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index, this strategy requires a figure of merit to compare different geometries. Here, an area-weighted integral of negative time-averaged shear stress, , is used as the principal objective function, although the discussion reveals that the extent as well as the intensity of reverse flow may be important. Five geometry parameters are considered: the sinus bulb width, the angles and the outflow diameters of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA). A survey of the landscape confirms that bulb shape has the dominant effect on with maximum occurring for large bulb widths. Also, it is shown that different sets of geometric parameters can produce low values of by either relatively small intense areas, or by larger areas of less intense reverse flow.
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