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Relativistic fluid dynamics: physics for many different scales

Relativistic fluid dynamics: physics for many different scales
Relativistic fluid dynamics: physics for many different scales
The relativistic fluid is a highly successful model used to describe the dynamics of many-particle, relativistic systems. It takes as input basic physics from microscopic scales and yields as output predictions of bulk, macroscopic motion. By inverting the process, an understanding of bulk features can lead to insight into physics on the microscopic scale. Relativistic fluids have been used to model systems as “small” as heavy ions in collisions, and as large as the Universe itself, with “intermediate” sized objects like neutron stars being considered along the way. The purpose of this review is to discuss the mathematical and theoretical physics underpinnings of the relativistic (multiple) fluid model. We focus on the variational principle approach championed by Brandon Carter and his collaborators, in which a crucial element is to distinguish the momenta that are conjugate to the particle number density currents. This approach differs from the “standard” text-book derivation of the equations of motion from the divergence of the stress-energy tensor in that one explicitly obtains the relativistic Euler equation as an “integrability” condition on the relativistic vorticity. We discuss the conservation laws and the equations of motion in detail, and provide a number of (in our opinion) interesting and relevant applications of the general theory.
1433-8351
83pp
Andersson, Nils
2dd6d1ee-cefd-478a-b1ac-e6feedafe304
Comer, Gregory L.
734e606a-fbae-4765-b778-4f2d844eb9f4
Andersson, Nils
2dd6d1ee-cefd-478a-b1ac-e6feedafe304
Comer, Gregory L.
734e606a-fbae-4765-b778-4f2d844eb9f4

Andersson, Nils and Comer, Gregory L. (2007) Relativistic fluid dynamics: physics for many different scales. Living Reviews in Relativity, 10 (1), 83pp.

Record type: Article

Abstract

The relativistic fluid is a highly successful model used to describe the dynamics of many-particle, relativistic systems. It takes as input basic physics from microscopic scales and yields as output predictions of bulk, macroscopic motion. By inverting the process, an understanding of bulk features can lead to insight into physics on the microscopic scale. Relativistic fluids have been used to model systems as “small” as heavy ions in collisions, and as large as the Universe itself, with “intermediate” sized objects like neutron stars being considered along the way. The purpose of this review is to discuss the mathematical and theoretical physics underpinnings of the relativistic (multiple) fluid model. We focus on the variational principle approach championed by Brandon Carter and his collaborators, in which a crucial element is to distinguish the momenta that are conjugate to the particle number density currents. This approach differs from the “standard” text-book derivation of the equations of motion from the divergence of the stress-energy tensor in that one explicitly obtains the relativistic Euler equation as an “integrability” condition on the relativistic vorticity. We discuss the conservation laws and the equations of motion in detail, and provide a number of (in our opinion) interesting and relevant applications of the general theory.

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More information

Published date: 30 January 2007

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 48197
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/48197
ISSN: 1433-8351
PURE UUID: 00f23743-e9e6-40c2-af0e-62d342545a1d
ORCID for Nils Andersson: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8550-3843

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Date deposited: 04 Sep 2007
Last modified: 18 May 2019 00:37

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Contributors

Author: Nils Andersson ORCID iD
Author: Gregory L. Comer

University divisions

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