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Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 inactivation using UVC laser radiation

Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 inactivation using UVC laser radiation
Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 inactivation using UVC laser radiation
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) has had a tremendous impact on humanity. Prevention of transmission by disinfection of surfaces and aerosols through a chemical-free method is highly desirable. Ultraviolet C (UVC) light is uniquely positioned to achieve inactivation of pathogens. We report the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 virus by UVC radiation and explore its mechanisms. A dose of 50 mJ/cm2 using a UVC laser at 266 nm achieved an inactivation efficiency of 99.89%, while infectious virions were undetectable at 75 mJ/cm2 indicating >99.99% inactivation. Infection by SARS-CoV-2 involves viral entry mediated by the spike glycoprotein (S), and viral reproduction, reliant on translation of its genome. We demonstrate that UVC radiation damages ribonucleic acid (RNA) and provide in-depth characterization of UVC-induced damage of the S protein. We find that UVC severely impacts SARS-CoV- 2 spike protein’s ability to bind human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) and this correlates with loss of native protein conformation and aromatic amino acid integrity. This report has important implications for the design and development of rapid and effective disinfection systems against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and other pathogens.
Raman spectroscopy, covid-19, disinfection, protein conformation, ribonucleic acid, COVID-19
2330-4022
42-52
Devitt, George
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Johnson, Peter B.
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Hanrahan, Niall
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Lane, Simon I.R.
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Vidale, Magdalena C.
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Sheth, Bhavwanti
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Allen, Joel D.
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Humbert, Maria V.
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Spalluto, Cosma M.
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Herve, Rodolphe C.
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Staples, Karl
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West, Jonathan J.
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Forster, Robert
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Divecha, Nullin
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McCormick, Chris
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Crispin, Max
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Hempler, Nils
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Malcolm, Graeme P.A.
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Mahajan, Sumeet
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Devitt, George
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Johnson, Peter B.
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Hanrahan, Niall
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Lane, Simon I.R.
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Vidale, Magdalena C.
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Sheth, Bhavwanti
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Allen, Joel D.
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Humbert, Maria V.
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Spalluto, Cosma M.
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Herve, Rodolphe C.
9baddc65-93cf-4a18-9388-088d60572b06
Staples, Karl
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West, Jonathan J.
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Forster, Robert
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Divecha, Nullin
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McCormick, Chris
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Crispin, Max
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Hempler, Nils
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Malcolm, Graeme P.A.
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Mahajan, Sumeet
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Devitt, George, Johnson, Peter B., Hanrahan, Niall, Lane, Simon I.R., Vidale, Magdalena C., Sheth, Bhavwanti, Allen, Joel D., Humbert, Maria V., Spalluto, Cosma M., Herve, Rodolphe C., Staples, Karl, West, Jonathan J., Forster, Robert, Divecha, Nullin, McCormick, Chris, Crispin, Max, Hempler, Nils, Malcolm, Graeme P.A. and Mahajan, Sumeet (2024) Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 inactivation using UVC laser radiation. ACS Photonics, 11 (1), 42-52. (doi:10.1021/acsphotonics.3c00828).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) has had a tremendous impact on humanity. Prevention of transmission by disinfection of surfaces and aerosols through a chemical-free method is highly desirable. Ultraviolet C (UVC) light is uniquely positioned to achieve inactivation of pathogens. We report the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 virus by UVC radiation and explore its mechanisms. A dose of 50 mJ/cm2 using a UVC laser at 266 nm achieved an inactivation efficiency of 99.89%, while infectious virions were undetectable at 75 mJ/cm2 indicating >99.99% inactivation. Infection by SARS-CoV-2 involves viral entry mediated by the spike glycoprotein (S), and viral reproduction, reliant on translation of its genome. We demonstrate that UVC radiation damages ribonucleic acid (RNA) and provide in-depth characterization of UVC-induced damage of the S protein. We find that UVC severely impacts SARS-CoV- 2 spike protein’s ability to bind human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) and this correlates with loss of native protein conformation and aromatic amino acid integrity. This report has important implications for the design and development of rapid and effective disinfection systems against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and other pathogens.

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Accepted/In Press date: 3 November 2023
e-pub ahead of print date: 25 December 2023
Published date: 17 January 2024
Additional Information: Funding Information: This work was funded by the Institute for Life Sciences University of Southampton and Academic Health Science Forum (AHSC). N.D., B.S., and M.C.V. acknowledge funding by BBSRC (BB/N016823/1 and BB/P003508/1). J.A. and M.C. are funded by the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) through Grant INV-008352/OPP1153692 funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and the University of Southampton Coronavirus Response Fund (M.C.). S.M. and G.D. acknowledge the European Research Council (ERC) grant NanoChemBioVision (638258) and EPSRC grant (EP/T020997/1). N.Ha. acknowledges funding by EPSRC Case Conversion studentship (EP/N509747/1) cofunded by M Squared, P.B.J. is cofunded by EPSRC Doctoral Training grant (EP/N509747/1) and ERC grant NanoChemBioVision (638258). S.L. is funded by Wessex Medical Research (Z08) and EPSRC Impact Acceleration Account, University of Southampton. Publisher Copyright: © 2023 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, covid-19, disinfection, protein conformation, ribonucleic acid, COVID-19

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 486041
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/486041
ISSN: 2330-4022
PURE UUID: 73c12fce-9162-4050-9c97-765358076b36
ORCID for George Devitt: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-7179-4459
ORCID for Niall Hanrahan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3596-7049
ORCID for Simon I.R. Lane: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-8155-0981
ORCID for Joel D. Allen: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-2547-968X
ORCID for Maria V. Humbert: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-5728-6981
ORCID for Cosma M. Spalluto: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-7273-0844
ORCID for Rodolphe C. Herve: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8838-6515
ORCID for Karl Staples: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3844-6457
ORCID for Jonathan J. West: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-5709-6790
ORCID for Chris McCormick: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6155-9161
ORCID for Max Crispin: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1072-2694
ORCID for Sumeet Mahajan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8923-6666

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 08 Jan 2024 17:32
Last modified: 08 May 2024 02:01

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Contributors

Author: George Devitt ORCID iD
Author: Peter B. Johnson
Author: Niall Hanrahan ORCID iD
Author: Simon I.R. Lane ORCID iD
Author: Magdalena C. Vidale
Author: Bhavwanti Sheth
Author: Joel D. Allen ORCID iD
Author: Maria V. Humbert ORCID iD
Author: Cosma M. Spalluto ORCID iD
Author: Karl Staples ORCID iD
Author: Robert Forster
Author: Nullin Divecha
Author: Chris McCormick ORCID iD
Author: Max Crispin ORCID iD
Author: Nils Hempler
Author: Graeme P.A. Malcolm
Author: Sumeet Mahajan ORCID iD

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