Gorban, Alexander N. and Karlin, Iliya V.
Quasi-equilibrium closure hierarchies for the Boltzmann equation
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 360, (2), . (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2005.07.016).
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In this paper, explicit method of constructing approximations (the triangle entropy method) is developed for nonequilibrium problems. This method enables one to treat any complicated nonlinear functionals that fit best the physics of a problem (such as, for example, rates of processes) as new independent variables.
The work of the method is demonstrated on the Boltzmann's-type kinetics. New macroscopic variables are introduced (moments of the Boltzmann collision integral, or scattering rates). They are treated as independent variables rather than as infinite moment series. This approach gives the complete account of rates of scattering processes. Transport equations for scattering rates are obtained (the second hydrodynamic chain), similar to the usual moment chain (the first hydrodynamic chain). Various examples of the closure of the first, of the second, and of the mixed hydrodynamic chains are considered for the hard sphere model. It is shown, in particular, that the complete account of scattering processes leads to a renormalization of transport coefficients.
The method gives the explicit solution for the closure problem, provides thermodynamic properties of reduced models, and can be applied to any kinetic equation with a thermodynamic Lyapunov function.
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